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Learning Arabic 
Language of the 

QUR'AN 







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Learning Arabic 

Language of the 

Qur'an 







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Learning Arabic Language of the Qur'an- Riyadh-2009 
484 p, 14x21cm 
ISBN: 978-603-500-065-9 
1 -Quran-language-study and teaching 2-Arabic 
Language-Quranic teaching l-Title 
224.407dc 1431/362 

Legal Deposit no.1431/362 
ISBN: 978-603-500-065-9 



^S^ 



Learning Arabic 

Language of the 

Qur'an 



By 
Izzath Uroosa 




DARUSSALAM 

GLOBAL LEADER IN ISLAMIC BOOKS 

Riyadh • Jeddah • Al-Khobar •Sharjah 
Lahore • London • Houston • New York 



Learning Arabic Language o^ the QURAN 




CONTENT 




Fore word 17 

Preface - 21 

Introduction 25 

Acknowledgment 29 

CRapter 1 
Word, Noun, Verb 31 

Word-ilp 31 

Noun - ^\ 33 

Number - iJJJ\ 41 

Singular - i^illl, duals- Jill! 41 

Plurals -^il ■ 41 

Sound Plural - j^LllI ££."1 43 

Broken Plural - ;I£3l ^l\ 43 

Ctiaptcr 3 
Pronouns - *j\^\ 51 

5 Content 



=^=^=^^=Ba-i Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 

Third person - votDl 52 

Second person - .IJsikUl 56 

First person - ^JfeUl 60 

CAapt&t h 
Prepositions — *JA ^J>- 65 

CAaptcr 5 
Adverb of Time and Place - 0&HI3 jUjll <SJ> 75 

Chapter 6 
Demonstrative Pronoun - SjliNl 111 77 

Near Distance - ^o^i IjA-^ ill 78 

Far Distance - j1*1U sjti^l 78 

CAaptcr 7 
Relative Pronouns - Jj^Jl ill 85 

CAaptet $ 
Interrogative Pronouns - p\jo:lNl ill 89 

CAapter 9 
Possessive Phrase - e j^i\ <-S^S\ 95 

CAaptct 10 
Descriptive Phrase - ^i^il CS^S\ 101 

CAaptot // 
Simple Nominal Sentence - a!*1)I1 *S!JL\ 107 

6 Content 



==^=«^==^=«« Learning Arabc Language of the QUR'AN 

Subject -feuil ■ - 1()8 

Predicate-^ - - 109 

Cliaytcr 12 

Verb- j«J\ -.- ll3 

Past Tense: Consonants 1 1 3 

Past tense table of- J*l ■ ■ L '5 

Past tense table of- t \*i : ^ - ' *8 

Past tense table of- JAS : jJ^ - ' ^ 

The use of - is ■ - ' — 

Chapter 13 
Verbal Sentence - aIujJI z±J~\ 1-5 

Ctiatjtcr 1k 

Hamzated Verbs - j j ^U jAiJ< » I3l 

Hamzah as first radical - JT 1 , . ^ 131 

Hamzah as middle radical - Ju 132 

Hamzah as third radical -vj> - .....133 

Chapter Id 
Weak Verbs 1 - fcll }^h - Assimilated Verb - JO 135 

The Assimilated waw - < £ J \J\J&J\ 136 

The Assimilated yaa - £$y\ Jl£J\ 138 

7 Content 



==^ ™-=^^=^= Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 

Chapter 16 

Weak Verbs II - ;i£H]\ juJSlI - Hollow Verb - J^SlI 141 

The Hollow Waw - ^\ S'J>H\ 141 

The Hollow Yaa JUI JjiSl 146 

Gfkaptet 17 

Weak Verbs III - fc]l jlii^l - Defective Verb - ^IsJI 149 

The Defective Wt w - ^rj\ ^6S\ 149 

The Defective Ya i- JUI ^|U1 151 

Ckaptai IS 
Doubly Weak Verb - J^illi 159 

Cfiapter 19 

Double Lettered Verbs - JLcUkDl 163 

Chapter 20 
Verbs with fixed prepositions - ^liDl^il ^VJ>- f* J^S" 167 

Chapter 21 
The Present Tense - ^UkUi jiiil 177 

Consonant Verbs - iUj*^ JtiT^ 177 

Chapter 22 

The Imperfect Tense 185 

Hamzated Verbs - jjl^l £jLkDl 185 

Hamzah as first radical - J§1 :j£fc 185 

8 Content 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Hamzah as second radical - jll : JUS 187 

Hamzah as third radical - \'j» : \'Ju 188 

Ctkaotet 23 

The Imperfect Tens 191 

Weak Verbs - &0 JUi^l fjiz£\ 191 

Assimilated Verb - JO '91 

The Assimilated Waw - ^1 JO 191 

The Assimilated Yaa - j\J\ JO 195 

Hollow Verb - J>^ 196 

The Hollow Waw - &jty\ J>ji.ty 196 

The Hollow Yaa - JtH J>£i\ 198 

Defective Verb - J=i\sS\ 200 

The defective Waw - &0 j*\A\ 200 

The defective Yaa - jUl ^ajlsJI 201 

CAaotet 2» 

The Imperfect Tense 209 

Doubly Weak Verb - uCj&\ J«JJ <q\Jz&\ 209 

OAaoter 2d 

The Imperfect Tense 213 

Double Lettered Verbs - .j^LO jiiJJ £jUki)\ 213 

9 Content 



=*====«= Learning Arabic Language of the QURAN 

CAapter 26 
Past Continuous -^;^)|l^UijiiJi 217 

Cfigpter 27 
Moods of the Imperfect Tense I - ^uJi L^ 219 

The Subjunctive -^j^J 1 pjUkifi 220 

Chapter 28 

Moods of the Imperfect Tense II - ^uJl L*> 229 

The Jussive - pj^LSI f-jUalfi 229 

Charter 29 

The Imperative - J*H^ j*ili 243 

Direct Command - ^IklJJ^I 244 

adapter 30 

The Imperative ~^\ y*}\ 259 

Indirect Command - ( Jfel) 1 3 ^\jS]^S\ 259 

Chapter 31 
Transitive and Intransitive - ^% iS ^\ j^j| Verbs 261 

Ctkaptcf 32 
The Past Passive Verb - J^kUl ^Ull ^\ 263 

Passive Verb of Consonants -i^Jl 264 

Hamzated Verbs - jjl^lll 268 

10 Content 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Weak Verbs - ik^l Jlii^ 272 

Doubly Weak Verbs - uL&\ 277 

Double Lettered Verbs - JiU^\ 277 

C&gptet 33 

The Imperfect Passive Verb - j}ik^ £jUk!M 281 

Passive Verb of Consonants - fcs*^\ 281 

Hamzated Verbs - j^l 283 

Weak Verbs - &^J1 Jl^ll - 286 

Doubly Weak Verbs - Ju&\ 288 

Double Lettered Verbs - j£\3a£\ 288 

CAavtar 3k 
Double Emphasis - jl£>1\ f§ - x£j& o°J> 293 

Cikaoter 3d 

The Active Participle - JcAlJI ^\ 299 

Hamzated and Assimilated Verbs - j&ilj *yjJ&\ 301 

Hollow Verbs - J^ 303 

Defective Verbs - J4&\ 304 

Double Lettered Verbs - JiU^ 305 

Clkaotct 36 
The Passive Participle - J^i21 jLL* 311 

1 1 Content 



==========^==«=^ Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 

Hamzated and .\ss\m\lated Verbs 314 

Hollow Verbs ■- U^SlI 314 

Defective Verbs - ^liJl 316 

Double Lettered Verbs - ^J^UklJl 316 

CAcwtcF 37 
Verbal Noun - jJukJl ill 319 

Chapter 38 

Triliteral Derived Verb - $y&\ jupt J^iJl 325 

Chapter 39 

Form II -JH 327 

C&antct H> 

Form III - j£lS 333 

Cfkaotct W 
Form IV- Ul\ 337 

Form V-Jils 343 

Cftaptcr fr3 

Form VI - j&\15 347 

Charter M 

Form VII - JilS) 351 

12 Content 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Form VIII - j^i} 353 

C&apter *tb 
FormIX-Ji.il 359 

C&iwtet 4r7 
Form X- jiiili 361 

GlkatJtcf W 
FormXI- JUi\ 365 

Chapter W 
Four Lettered Verbs - cfeUJll ^klS\ Jiili 367 

Form XII -JJ^i 367 

Chapter bO 

Derived Forms of 4-lettered Verbs - ££UJy j^j2\ JA*^ ^hJ^ ...369 

Form XIII - JUi: 369 

Form XIV -jliii 369 

Form XV - j&i\ 370 

Chapter b1 
Declension of a Noun - <1>\J^1\ 37 1 

Indeclinable Nouns - *zl2\ 371 



Declinable nouns - <L>^i\ 373 

1 3 Content 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



C&aotet 52 

Exception - iUhiyi 375 

Chapter 53 
Absolute Negation - ^JX\ gS N 379 

CAavter 5h 

The Noun of Place and Time - olijltj j&lJlil} 381 

CAaptcr 55 

Noun of Instrument - aJSK ill 385 

CAaeter 56 
Feminine Gender -eJjill j>Ui\ 387 

Conditional Sentences - iit)l5\ JllU 395 

CAapter 58 
Inna and its Sisters - l^ilji-l J <ji 401 

Ca<wtcr 59 
Kaana and its Sisters - l^ljS-fj 5^ 403 

CRaptM 60 
The Accusative I - ol^iilM 405 

Objects - j^liJl 405 

Direct Object- aj J^AiUl 405 

14 Content 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Absolute Object- 3^1 j^ 406 

Object for Time or Place - ^i Sy^ /'4^ 408 

Object to Express Aim or Purpose - & JJ^iilil 410 

Object for Denoting Use of With - 1^ J>Ul 41 1 

Chapter 61 
The Accusative II - oU^ailM 413 

Noun for State - jlil 413 

The Specification ->^1 416 

Chapter 62 
Particles of Conjunction - ^j*&\ oijSl 419 

CAapter 63 

The Interjection - lJUSU ^W 

The Vocative - *IJJ\ oljSl 425 

Other Particles of Interjection - y4^ ti>^ oj)3N\ 429 

CAavUr 6h 
Adjectives - 6H2J1 433 

Chapter 65 

Noun of Pre-eminence - Jl^^ jLlJ 437 

The Comparative - jjULLll J^-4^ 437 

\ 5 Content 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



The Superlative - .Jl^aisJ\ f ^L\ 440 

Chapter 66 
The Elative - UJO fLi 443 

Chapter 67 

The Numbers and its usage - aJUJcJ.!j iikjl 447 

The Cardinal Numbers - ^\J^\ i^Jl 447 

The Ordinal Numbers - q>J}\ ilii\ 460 

The Fractions - £&\ 462 

The Distributive Adjectives - 4^jj^ olLJl 463 

Chapter 68 

The Substitute - J-CJI 469 

Chapter 69 

Various Unorthodox Verbs - iZx*S\ £±^j£* jVilN\ 471 

The Verb (not to be) - JLJJ 471 

The Verb of Praise and Blame - fill j ^13 jliil 473 

The Verbs of Wonder -kJ^\&£\ 474 

The Verb (may be) - ^lc 475 

Cikaptct 70 

Five Magnified Nouns - iy&JA\ illil i\llh\ 477 

1 6 Content 



— Learning Arabic Language of the OUR'AN 




Foreword 




The message of the Qur'an is addressed to the entire human 
kind in Arabic language. Almighty Allah says: 

"We have sent it down as an Arabic Qur'an that you may 
understand." (12:2) 

Arabic is a beautiful language. Every Verse in the Holy 
Qur'an that was revealed to Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H.) in 
Arabic some 1400 years ago is a specimen of eloquence. lor the 
believers, the Qur'an was opening a new world where evil had 
to be rejected and virtue promoted. The non-believers, on the 
other hand, could sense the "magical effects" of the Qur'an but 
did not want to change their lives. Therefore, wherever they 
came across recitation of the Qur'an they tried to block their 
ears with the fingers. 

The appreciation of the beauty of the Qur'anic language 
could be gained through perfect understanding of Arabic. But 
for a Muslim, it is not just eloquence or the beauty of the language 
that matters. He or she would like to go deeper into its meaning 
because it is the message that one wishes to imbibe in life. 



17 



Foreword 



=^ = Learning Arabic Language of the QURAN 

Some commentators of the Qur'an say that knowledge of 
Arabic is mandatory for every Muslim. But majority of the 
commentators are of the opinion that though knowledge of 
Arabic is required for a Muslim, it is not compulsory. In any 
case, it is a fact that knowledge of Arabic would help in better 
understanding the Qur'an. Therefore, the better the authority 
over the language the better the comprehension of the Book that 
guides us all on the right path. 

Acquiring command over Arabic could be a relatively easy 
task for those whose mother tongue it is. But its learning is 
definitely difficult for the non-speakers of this language. The 
study of Arabic, therefore, cannot be taken lightly. 

The world market is flooded with books that claim to teach 
Arabic the easy way. These books are helpful only to the job 
seekers in the Middle East. The books that could impart 
knowledge of Arabic that is required for the understanding of 
the Qur'an are rare. The book in your hand is especially 
designed for the learning of the language of the Qur'an. All the 
examples used for explaining Arabic grammar have been taken 
straight from the Holy Qur'an. This approach helps a beginner 
to enter the world of the Qur'an directly. While the student is 
learning Arabic grammar he or she begins to understand the 
Qur'an. This is a very special feature of this book. 

The other characteristics that make this book attractive and 
useful are the simplicity of language, its clarity and effectiveness of 
the expression in achieving its objective. The book could be 
used by students of different age groups if their intention is to learn 
Arabic with an eye on the proper understanding the of the Qur'an. 

1 8 Foreword 



=- Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



The author has profound knowledge of Arabic as well as 
English. She also possesses deep insight of Qur'anic expressions. 
She studied Arabic in Saudi Arabia and India. This comprehensive 
book is the result of her diligence and commitment to learning and 
teaching the Qur'anic Arabic. We hope that she would be writing 
more useful books on this and other subjects related to Qur'anic 
studies in the future. May Allah give her the reward for this 
valuable service to the understanding of the Qur'an and make it 
popular among the students and the academic world at large. 

(Prof. Molisin Vsmani Nadwi, 

Professor of Arabic, 

Dean Faculty of English and 

Foreign Languages University 

(formerly CIEFL), 

Hyderabad, India. 



1 9 Foreword 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




20 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Preface 




Arabic holds an eminent position among the Semitic 
languages. While most of the Semitic languages have slowly 
faded out, Arabic, owing to its dynamic nature, is alive and still 
growing. Also, viewed through the fact that languages do vary 
in form and style according to the geographical location of their 
speakers and changing times Arabic may be described as 
unique. Amazingly it has not only survived but also retained the 
same format it had some 1500 years ago. The reason behind this 
phenomenon is the Holy Qur'an. 

During the time when Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon 
him) started spreading the message of Islam, Arabic was used 
differently in different parts of the Arabian Peninsula. But Allah 
Subhcmahii Wa Ta'la provided an opportunity to unify all 
accents of Arabic by revealing the Qu^an in the eloquent and 
attractive Qureshi style, which was soon adopted by all. 

Along with the message of Islam, Arabic too moved into 
different parts of the world. A time came when large groups of 
people who did not know Arabic had to adopt this language. For 
this purpose they were required to know the grammar of the 
language. Hazrath Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) realised 
the importance of such a need and asked Abul Aswad Ad- 



21 



Preface 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Duwali to extract the grammar from the Qur'an and prepare a 
guide. This guide later appeared as a well-developed base for 
grammar. Among the Arabic grammar books, A Ikitab of Sibawaih 
is considered the most important. 

In the meantime, writing of new grammar books continued. 
Since India had begun to come under the Arab-Muslim influence 
in the eighth century, the need to understand Arabic grammar in 
a proper way was keenly felt. Consequently some grammar 
books were written here. Later responding to the needs of 
English speaking people, numerous books were also written on 
the subject in English. 

The long tradition of works on Arabic grammar indicates the 
significance attached to such tasks and their relevance in 
learning and mastering the language. One other reason for 
giving such attention to Arabic grammar is the fact that it is 
different from the other languages. Arabic pronunciation is 
based on erab or syntax. A little mistake in the use of erab could 
change the entire meaning of a word. 

The number of people who wish to learn Arabic grammar so 
as to understand and appreciate the meaning of the Qur'an 
properly is growing rapidly. But there is a dearth of books in 
English which could satisfy the needs of the new generation of 
learners. Keeping this vacuum in mind, a scholar of Arabic, 
Mrs. Izzath Uroosa, who has had the good fortune of learning 
the language and its grammar in Saudi Arabia and also obtaining 
an M.A. degree in Arabic from the English and Foreign 
Language University, Hyderabad, India, took up the daunting 
task of preparing a book on the subject. She has successfully 

22 Preface 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



attempted to meet the requirements of the learners from varied 
educational backgrounds. In her endeavor she has used the 
added advantage of teaching groups of women from different 
educational backgrounds for several years. 

The hallmark of this book is its completeness, meaning, she 
has dealt with every important aspect of Arabic grammar. The 
other important feature of the book is the use of examples from 
the Qur'an. She has taken pains to explain knotty points through 
Qur'anic text by quoting relevant Verses. The third important 
dimension of this book is its simple language, which can be 
understood effortlessly. For this purpose she has used easier 
translation of the verses. With all these features I would describe 
this book as exemplary and unique. 

May Almighty Allah make this book beneficial to the 
learners and also give the author its qjr (reward) in this world 
and hereafter. 



(Dr. (RasfiicC Naseem Nadhvi, 



Associate Professor of Arabic, English 

and 

Foreign Languages University 

(formerly CIEFL), 

Hyderabad, India. 



23 Preface 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




24 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Introduction 




The language of the Qur'an is different from modern Arabic. 
Therefore, the two streams of the same language of Divine 
revelation need different approaches of learning. While there are 
numerous educational institutions that offer courses in modern 
Arabic, the number of those that coach the language of Qur'an is 
limited. 

As I began to learn Qur'anic Arabic about two decades ago in 
Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, I started making notes of 
things that could help a non-Arabic speaking person in picking 
up the language more comfortably. 

A few years later I became an Arabic teacher. During the course 
of teaching in Hyderabad, India, I found that the participants in 
each class differed vastly in social and educational background. 
Some had little formal education and some others were degree 
holders. A few of them did not know Urdu, some were well versed 
in Hindi and most others wanted me to explain Arabic grammar in 
English. I realised that if I could impart a lew basic principles of 
the language to a learner, he or she could get the hang of grammar 
and appreciate the nuances in Qur'anic Verses within a few weeks 
into the course. 



25 



Introduction 



=^ ss =^ sss= ^^ ss=s= i,* SS!SSSi ^ ;;i ^ SSiSS Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 

The other thi sg that struck me was that there could not 
possibly be a sngle book capable of serving students who 
possessed no forma! education or had gone through various 
stages of academic life. That is the reason, I told myself, that 
there are so man} books on the subject. Each one is attempting 
to reach out to the student in a different manner. According to 
my own understanding and feedback this book could be filling 
up the gaps the le, rners might have encountered in other books. 

The examples ; have used to explain the grammar in this book 
are all from the ( *uran. The examples thus serve two purposes. 
They serve the basic objective of explaining a particular term and 
also offer the student an opportunity to understand a Verse and the 
manner in which it has been used in the Qur'an. 

In any case, it s up to the student to decide whether the book 
has been of any he Ip to him or her. 

I have used th ) English translation of the Verses from Mir 
Aneesuddin's "Th( Holy Quran/' published by Islamic Academy 
of Sciences, Hyderabad, India. Dr. Abdullah Abbas Nadwi's book 
"Learn the Language of the Holy Qur'an" has been of great help. 

The book does not claim to teach Arabic grammar in its 
entirety. It provide; fundamental knowledge of the grammar that is 
used in the Qur'ar It can be safely said that once a student goes 
through the entire course that has been encapsulated in this book he 
or she would begin to understand the meaning of the Qur'an in its 
right perspective. As we know understanding of the Qur'an is 
essential to. appreciate and practice Islam in its true sense. 

26 Introduction 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



I am looking forward to your comments and suggestions so 
as to improve the book in future editions. 

Mrs. Izzath Vroosa 

B.Sc, M.A. B. Ed. 
8-2-399/ B/ 6, Hyder Manzil, 

Road No. 5, Banjara Hills, 

Hyderabad, 500034, AP, India 

e-ma il: izzathuroosa@gmail.com 



27 Introduction 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




28 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Acknowledgment 




I would like to express my thanks to my teachers in Riyadh - 
Dr. Anjum Tauseef and Dr. Wasifa Azeem who initiated me into 
learning the Qur'anic language and enabled me to teach it to 
others. My thanks are also due to my teachers at the English and 
Foreign Languages University (formerly Central Institute of 
English and Foreign Languages or CIEFL) at Hyderabad, India - 
Prof. Mohsin Usmani Nadwi, Dr. Syed Rash id Naseem Nadwi 
and Dr Syed Jehangir who went through the text of this book 
and made valuable suggestions. The book could not have been 
completed without the enthusiastic support I received from my 
student Mrs. Naseha Mudassir who not only typed the entire text 
but also carried out the corrections patiently. I would like to 
place on record my thanks to Mr. Syed Iftekhar, the artist who 
designed the cover page and gave a professional touch to the 
entire book, and Mr. Fauzan Azami who worked on the design 
and layout. 

I am grateful to my ever-patient mother who saw the 
fulfillment of some of her dreams in me and helped and guided 
me through the thick and thin. She is undoubtedly my 



29 



A ckno wledgm ent 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



inspiration and my best friend. My children who were very 
young when I started learning the language bore the brunt of this 
challenging task smilingly which I had undertaken and carried 
on for long years. My prayers and special thanks are to them. 

Over and above, I am indebted to my husband Mr. Syed 
Abdul Mutakabbir Arshad, an avid reader of Islamic literature, 
who has been a pillar of strength all through my life. Without his 
unstinted support and encouragement I could not have learnt 
Arabic grammar, interacted with people, taught my students and 
also write this book. 

In spite of all the efforts I have made and the help I have 
received, some mistakes in the book might have gone 
unnoticed. Please, direct my attention so that they could be 
corrected in the future editions. I will be awaiting your response 
as well as prayers. 



30 Acknowledgment 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




WORD, NOUN, VERB 



Word 



A word is a unit of spoken or written language. 
Example: 

<1>\£ A book 

(lii He knew 

C3& He wrote 

Kinds of Words - <uiSJ1 %0\ 

There are three kinds of words: 

♦ Noun 

♦ Verb j«J\ 

♦ Particle vJ£i-l 

Noun - f-^i : A Noun is the name of a person, animal, place, 
or thing. 






31 



1 : Word, Noun, Verb 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Examples: 



&\ 


Allah 

1 


£«s 

ja3 


Moon 




Muhammad 


9 ° X 


Sun 


<? ** -- 


Stone 


5JJ 


Night 


0"$ 


Horse 


J^ 


Morning 


4J^ 


Garden 




Doomsday 




Palm 




Elephant 




Fire 




Rope 


> 


Bird 


& 


City 




Neck 




Spring/Eye 




Face 


?* 


Star 



Verb - J-LiJi: A verb denotes action in relation to past, present or 
future tense. 



Example: 




e ~ 


He opened 




He hits 


3 'M 


Listen 


_yvo!3 )i — 


Don't help 




32 



1 : Word, Noun, Verb 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Particle - J^\ : It is a word which does not convey complete 
meaning when it stands alone. It gives meaning to a sentence 
only when it is used with a verb or a noun. The particle does not 
indicate the past, present or future tense 
Examples: 

°y? - From 

ji - From/About 

NOUN -j^ff 
Nouns are divided into two kinds. 

♦ Indefinite iy>S$\ 

♦ Definite *!JiA\ 

Indefinite Nouns (s^SoJl ilLlt) are names given in general to a 
living or non-living thing (common nouns). 

Indefinite nouns end with nunnation (yj^i ~ — - ) 
Example: 





Man 




Punishment 


i$\ 


Woman 


S-Ui— <j 


Sky 


iJX^LAJ 


Fish 


& 


Earth 


s\j* 


Water 


3 \ &^S> 


Form 




Kingdom 


S^ 


Mountain 



33 



1 ; Word, Noun, Verb 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AI 



Definite Nouns (&y6S *-V*Si\) are proper names given to 

certain person, pi ace or an object. 

Example: 



c*. 



S 



(With nunnation ^Jil — - ) 



y 



JuaL 




' (Without nunnation jjjJS/ .£ *. ) 

Important Cnaracteristics of a Noun: 

The following are some important characteristics of a noun. 

1 . A Noun usually has a nunnnation (jjjIj/ -i - ) on it. 

Examples: 

oJL> - A House 
Q^i - A Chair 
pi - A Pen 
4^1^ - A Book 
Sy^j - A Messenger 

34 \: Word y Noun, Ve\ 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



2. There are two conditions in which the nunnation (J^j^l * * ) 

is dropped. 
♦ The indefinite noun can be changed to definite by adding the 
prefix ' jl' (which is a definite article) and the nunnation (jjjIS/ 

~^- ) is dropped. 

Example: 



The + girl ^ The girl 



UU1 ^ US + J^ 
The + news -> The news 



-» iif\S+ ji 



The + fruit -» The fruit 



The + ruler -> The ruler 



The + silver -» The silver 



The + day -> The day 



35 1: Word, Noun, Verb 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Note: The proper nouns like ajli, L?li are definite by nature. 
Therefore, J\ cannot be added to them. 

♦ When two nouns come together in the possessive form, the 
nunnation (JtJ^I ' ^ ) is dropped from the first noun 
while the corresponding harakah (a^>./ ' ^ ) will remain. 

♦ The second noun will have kasrah (77-) or tanwin kasrah (— ) . 

♦ In the possessive case, the possessor comes after the thing 
possessed. 

Examples: 



4)1 jl: -> iiil +jU 
Fire + Allah -» Fire of Allah 



Messenger + Allah -> Messenger of Allah 



People + the grave -> People of the grave 



Book + your -> Your book (plural) 



House + your -> Your house (singular) 



Nominative Case (*1J]1 AJli/pyJ^i); When the noun is the 
subject (doer of the verb) of the sentence it will bear dammah 



36 1; Word, Noun, Verb 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



(-L) or tanwin darnmah (A). The noun with dammah will be in 
the nominative case. 

Examples: 

[yj\j> - Nooh said. (71:21) 

y^}\ JiAlj - And the moon was split. (54:1) 

SjllH. Ofrli-j - And a caravan came. (12:19) 

3. Accusative Case (^JalU ijli/4>^V): When the noun is the 
object of the sentence, it will bcaxfatha (-1) or tanwin fatha 
(-£-). Here the noun will be in the accusative case. 

Examples: 

"Allah has made the Ka'bah." (5:^7) 
"And Allah sets forth an example."" (66:1 1) 

A \'(? ^\ < " < Y 

'Then Allah sent a crow." (5:31) 

4. Genitive Case (J^\ aJI^/j^j^UO' If the noun is preceded by a 
preposition, it will bear kasrah (— ) or tanwin kasrah (— ) . 
Here the noun will be in the genitive case. 

37 1 : Jfori/, Noun, Verb 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Examples: 

"From the evil of that which He has created." (1 13:2) 
"Then he will lead a life of pleasure." (101:7) 

"On the straight path." (36:4) 
5. Some nouns such as: are exceptions to the rule and therefore 

do not have nunnation (Jtjl/ ± t ) nor kasrah (— ) in the 

genitive case. The genitive case will be denoted by fatha (jL). 

f*?Ltfi j - u ^' > py^ > fir 4 j V^j 

"Go to Firawn, he has certainly rebelled." (79:17) 

"And mention in the book (about) Maryamr (19:16) 

Usually non-Arabic names and names which have more than 3 
letters do not bear nunnation (jj^Ij/ — t ). 

Also nouns used as adjectives denoting colors do not bear 
nunnation (Jjj£l — » ). 

38 1; Word, Noun, Verb 



Learning Arab c Language of the QUR'AN 



Examples: 





- Green 




- Black 




- Yellow 


^ 


- Red 




- White 


Examples: 




i&i 


r^M\^3\0i 



"He it is who made the fire for you from the green trees.' 
(36:80) 

"You can distinguish the w/i/te thread." (2:187) 



39 1 : Word, Noun, Verb 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'Alv 




40 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 2 




NUMBER - VjuJI 
Singular, Dual and Plurals 

In English there is only singular and plural. However, there are 
three numbers in Arabic: 



>yti\ 



Singular - *"' 



Dual 
Plural 



£i\ 



The dual is formed by adding the suffix fatha, alif and noon with 
kasrah (gl— ) in the nominative case {^)\ i]\i) and fatha, 
sukoon and noon with kasra (gi— ) in both the accusative and 
genitive case for masculine nouns. 
Examples of masculine duals: 



Singular 



A Muslim 



Dual 



Two Muslims 



(Case) 



Nominative 



41 



2: Number 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



A Muslim 


Two Muslims 


Accusative 


A Muslim 


Two Muslims 


Genitive 



Examples: 



l^j-lJI <j CaL* oWii).5>o jlj^Xfl^tj ^ 



"And as for the wall, it belongs to two orphan boys in 
the city." (18: 82) 

For feminine..., the nouns end in " S " (<£J5^J| i\~i\ ). This 
changes to an ordinary "o " in the dual. The suffixes "jl— " 
and "g^— " wi " be added as in masculine duals. 

Examples of feminine duals: 



Singular 


Dual 


(Case) 


<* 

A Muslim woman 


Two Muslim women 


Nominative 


A Muslim woman 


Two Muslim women 


Accusative 


A Muslim woman ! 


Two Muslim women 


Genitive 

(>l XJU.) 




42 


2: Number 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Examples: 

"We have assigned to one of them two gardens of 
grapes." (18: 32) 

"And for him who feared to stand before his Fosterer 
are two gardens'" (55:46) 

There are two types of plurals in Arabic: 



1. Sound plural 

2. Broken plural 









The Sound Plural (jLilUl *Q\) : In the formation of sound plural 
the original form of the noun does not change. It has different 
masculine and feminine forms and is formed by suffixing dammah, 
waw with sukoon and noon with fatha "Oj-*-" in nominative, and 
kasrah, yaa with sukoon and noon with fatha "^~" in the 
accusative and genitive cases to the end of the masculine nouns. 
Examples of masculine Sound Plurals: 



Jar 



A Muslim 



Dual 



Two Muslims 



Plural 



Muslims 



(Case) 



Nominative 



43 



2; Number 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



A Muslim 


Two Muslims 


Muslims 


Accusative 


Muslims 


Two Muslims 


A Muslim 


Genitive 

(>1 SJli) 



For feminine plurals fatha, alif and tara with tanwin dammah 
"ol-^L" is suffixed for nominative, and fatha, alif and /aa with 
tanwin kesrah "ol~" for accusative and genitive cases. 



Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


(Case) 


Muslim 
woman 


Two Muslim 
women 


OLaJLWa 

Muslim women 


Nominative 


Muslim 
woman 


Two Muslim 
women 


Muslim 
women 


Accusative 

.^-.liijli) 


ss - 

Muslim 
women 


Two Muslim 
women 


Muslim woman 


Genitive 



In the singular form we observe that the nominative, accusative 
and genitive cases are evident by the harakah (o^£- - i) on the 

last letter of ^\1S i.e. tanwin dammah (A) , tanwin fatha i^±) 

and tanwin kasrah (— ). This is called o^L * > \ >c^^f \ . 






44 



2: Number 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



In the dual and plural forms, the v#%^ are not evident with 
harakah ^&j*\ ' , ' ) but represent the nominative, accusative 
and genitive cases with the use of letters such as (0*— ) (Oj — ) 
(Oj^L) (0) — ) This is called: ^/J~H ^>^- 

Example: 

^J^Sj u^^j ^>^5 hg&'j c3xZi\j o^^^b 



dj&&L\j cJ^l^\j ij^l^j c^^^\j iy^Jy^^\j 

'The Mws/™ wew and the Muslim women, the believing men 
and the believing women, the obedient men and the obedient 
women and the truthful men and the truthful women, the 
patient men and the patient women, the humble men and the 
humble women, the men who give charity and the women 
who give charity, the men who fast and the women who fast, 
the chaste men and the chaste women and the men who 
remember Allah much and the women who remember; Allah 
is certainly (ready for their) protective forgiveness and has 
prepared a great reward for them" (33:35) 

The Broken Plural (J r lSll]\ ^il): Unlike sound plurals where the 
original form of the word is retained, the broken plural is formed 

45 2: Number 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



by making internal changes to the structure of the noun by 
means of deletions, prefixes and suffixes. 

Examples of broken plurals for the word il^ is as follows: 



Singular 


Dual 


"■'. '/*r^' f "---: : ." r ?.' : -' 

Plural 


■:.■ (Case) 


Book 


Two books 


Books 


Nominative 


Book 


Two books 


Books 


Accusative 


Books 


Two books 


Book 


Genitive 



Here we see that the formation of the dual is the same as that of 
the sound plural in the nominative, accusative and genitive 
cases. 



46 



2: Number 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Listed below are some examples of broken plurals. 



, °. > 
Singular 


^ 

Plural 


Singular 


_ , ■ ■ i 

Plural 


Boy 


SSfJ 

Boys 


- - * 
Command/Affair 


Commands/ Affairs 


t 
Lord 


Lords 


Prophet 


Prophets 


Property 


Properties 


Soul 


Souls 


River 


Rivers 


9 \ * 
Month 


Months 


9 . 

Wife 


Wives 


City 


$ 2 9- 

Cities 


Foot 


Feet 


Ship 


Ships 


$0 ^ 

Eye 


Eyes 


ill 
Heart 


<? oil 

Hearts 


Sword 



Swords 


Mountain 


Mountains 


Man 


Men 


House 


Houses 


Woman 


Women 


Pen 


f!AS\ 

Pens 



47 



2: Number 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Examples: 



"And these days (ups and downs) We keep on changing 
among human beings by turn." (3:140) 

"And gardens beneath which rivers flow." (3:136) 

"Are different masters better or Allah, the One, the 
Omnipotent?" (12:39) 

"And the mountains pegs?" (78:7) 

"They have hearts with which they do not understand." 

(7:179) 

"Then marry from among the women who seem good to 
you." (4:3) 






"Some of your wives and yoz/r children are certainly 
your enemies." (64: 14) 

48 2; Number 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



£ <l&j\>M^j fftJC ^& i4jU oUb # 

"That was because there came to ihem their messengers 
with clear proofs." (64:6) 

"There is no sin on you if you enter non residential 
buildings wherein your provision (is stored)." (24:29) 



49 2; Number 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




50 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 3 




PRONOUNS - 'Ju^s 



Pronouns are words used as a substitute for a noun like he, she, 
his, her, their, them, I, etc. 

There are basically two types of pronouns: 

1. Attached Pronoun ( J-^iiM j&&\) which come attached to a 
noun, verb or particle. 

2. Detached Pronoun (J^/JI^LJalQ which comes separately 
without attaching itself to a verb, noun or particle. 

Pronouns can be classified according to: 
1. Conversation - f *>631: 

a. Third person - 4*5^ 

b. Second person - uJ^lklM 

c. First person - ilScuH 



2. Gender - ~j±\'. 



a. Masculine 

b. Feminine 






51 



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Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



3. Number- SjJJi: 

a. Singular - i^LUl 

b. Dual - JiDl 

c. Plural - *J~\ 

Note: Unlike English, Arabic uses a separate word for 'two' 
which is Jill I (dual). 

Third Person Pronouns -^iklJ^sulbJ I 

As these are used most often in the Qur'an, we will deal with 
them first. 

Table for masculine third person pronouns - ^lc ^li : 



Vole ^5 Jla 

3rd person Masculine 


Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


Detached Pronouns 


He 


Ha 
They two 


They all 


Attached Pronouns 




His 


Hi 
Theirs (two) 


> 

Theirs (all) 




For him 


U4j 

For them 
(two) 


For them 
(all) 


— . — __ 


Only him 


Uiljl 

Only them 
(two) | 


Only them 
(all) 



52 



3: Pronouns 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Table for feminine third person pronouns - v^^ ^j 



>S> 



3 rd person Feminine 


Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


Detached Pronouns 


She 


They two 


They all 


Attached Pronouns 


Her 


Theirs (two) 


J* 
Theirs (all) 




For her 


11*5 
For them (two) 


For them (all) 




lift 
Only her 


Only them (two) 


Only them (all) 



Examples of detached pronouns - J^-iiJ 





Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


Masculine 


He is a Muslim 


They both: are 
Muslims 


They are 
Muslims 


Feminine 


She is a Muslim 


They both are 
Muslims 


They are 
Muslims 



53 



3: Pronouns 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Examples of attached pronouns (J^^i J^iaJl ) with a noun: 



illlSlSSlllIllSli 


llllSlllllPi|ISi*liBlllllllli| 


Dual 


^:;;-- : ?|^;^;-,J 


Masculine 


His Lord 


Their Lord 


i^ 

Their Lord 


Feminine 


Her Lord 


U4?j 
Their Lord 


Their Lord 



Examples of attached pronouns (J*^\ j5L*aN ) with a verb: 



W0^&:^M 


111111 IlHIllSllI 

Singular 


HHBM 




Masculine 


He created 
him 


He created 
them 


He created 
them 


Feminine 


He created her 


\ ^ tf a 14- 

He created 
them 


He created 
them 



Examples: 



ft -X >-l -Oil J^J^p 

"Say, 'Allah is One.'" (112:1) 

"But the devil whispered to them both" (7:20) 

54 3: Pronouns 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"And he swore to them both, 'I am certainly a sincere 
adviser to you.'" (7:21) 

"That you should not serve anyone except Him." (17:23) 

"When they sat around it" (85:6) 

"And spend from that which We have provided for 
them." (2:3) 

"And //?ey are certain about the hereafter." (2: 4) 

"And seek //is protective forgiveness. /fe is certainly 
the acceptor of repentance." (1 1 0:3 ) 

"To make clear to us, what is it (exactly)." (2:70) 



55 3; Pronouns 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"So when they reach (the end of) their term, then either 
hold them in a recognized (good manner) or separate 
them in a recognized (good manner). " (65:2) 

/ y - - ■ / £" r" -* * - \ 

"(That you) bring the (soul) back, if you are truthful?" 

(56:87)' 

Second Person Pronouns - c-Jo L>Jai ^jula) I 

Table for masculine second person pronouns - ^UkUl ^IlU JsLiJI 



2nd person Masculine 


Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


Detached Pronouns 


You 


You both 


"A 

You all 


Attached Pronouns 


1 
Yours 


Yours (two) 


Yours(all) 




For you 


u£3 

For you both 


For you all 




2fy 

Only 

from you 


Only from 
you (two) 


Only from 
you (all) 



56 



3: Pronouns 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Table for feminine second person pronouns - l-J^IM euijUJ ^LiJl 



2nd person Feminine 


Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


Detached Pronouns 


oil 

You 


You both 


m 

You all 


Attached Pronouns 


Yours 


LA- 
YOUTS two) 


Yours(all) 




For you 


us3 

For you both 


0^ 
For you all 




4^11 

Only 

from you 


Only from 
you (two) 


Only from 
you (all) 



Examples of detached pronouns - J^^ull^jL^all 





Singular 


Dual 


::-Cf.-V'.', 
Plural 


Masculine 


You are a 
Muslim 


You both are 
Muslims 


You all are 
Muslims 


Feminine 


You are a 
Muslim 


You both are 
Muslims 


You all are 
Muslims 



57 



3: Pronouns 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Examples of attached pronouns (J-s^ilSI JjLiall ) with a noun: 





Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


Masculine 


Your Lord 


u~5 

Lord of you 
both 


.4 i. 

Lord of you all 


Feminine 


Your Lord 


Lord of you 
both 


5 ■> i. 

Lord of you all 



Examples of attached pronouns (J-^llJl JjL^aJI ) with a verb: 





Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


Masculine 


He created 
you 


He created 
you both 


•^,sU 


He created you 
all 


Feminine 


He created 
you 


He created 
you both 


He created you 
all 



Examples; 



[J&S^ o^ &[ TEI& £ H\^fe^&&£\}& 



58 



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Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"They (angels) replied, 'Glory be to You, we do not have 
knowledge except of that which You taught us. You are 
certainly the All-Knowing, the All- Wise.'" (2:32) 

"O Adam! You and your wife, dwell in the garden." 
(2:35) 

"You Alone do we serve and (from) You Alone do we 
seek help." (1:5) 

"Did We not expand /br you your bosom?" (94:1) 

"And when the angels said, 'O Maryam! Allah has 
certainly chosen you and cleaned you and chosen you 
above the women of the worlds.'" (3: 42) 

"O Maryam! Be devoutly obedient to your Fosterer and 
prostrate and bow down with those who bow down." 
(3:43) 

59 3; Pronouns 



==^===^=^== Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 

First Person Pronoun -jqj^L^^ulaJ I 

In the third and second person, we have categorized singular, 
dual and plural according to the number. However, dual does 
not exist for the first person pronoun. "j£" It is used for both 
dual and plural. 

As in English the first person pronouns are common for both 
masculine and feminine genders. 

Examples: 



First person 
(Masculine/Feminine) 


2>JlA 

Singular 


Plural 


Detached Pronouns 


I 


We 


Attached Pronouns 
( To Noun) 


My 


Our 


Attached Pronouns 
(To Verb) 


Me 


Us 




4 
For me 


For us 




Only me 


Only us 



60 



3: Pronouns 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Note: 



When attached pronouns are used with a noun we suffix " {$ " to 
the noun. When they are used with a verb " °j> " is used. 



My Lord He created me 

Sometimes in first person possessive singular pronoun, " iS " is 
not attached to the noun or verb but the possession is indicated 
by accenting the last letter with a kasrah (— ) 

4.// S < * S S 9 * } T Y 

"I respond to the prayer of one who prays" (2:186) 

'Tor you, your religion (or judgment) and for me, my 
religion (or judgment)." (109:6) 

5| comes in the meaning of surely/certainly. It can be attached 
to pronouns and used. 

5|+l^ -> ^1 - Surely we 

5| + jJ -> tiiji - Surely you 

5i + o -> iil. - Surely he 

"Then glorify your Fosterer by praising Him and seek 
His protective forgiveness. He Is certainly the acceptor 
of repentance. " (1 10:3) 

61 3: Pronouns 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 






"Certainly I turn my attention towards Him Who initiated 
the creation of the skies and the Earth." (6:79) 

"We certainly gave you abundance." (108:1) 

"You are certainly the All-Knowing, the All-Wise." (2:32) 
Examples of detached pronouns - J^iLllI JjL^JI: 





n ■ ■ ■ 
Singular 


'#■' , '. , v v 'V : ; * . 


Plural 


Masculine 


I am a Muslim 


We two are 
Muslims 


We all are 
Muslims 


Feminine 


I am a Muslim 


We two are 
Muslims 


We all are 
Muslims 



Examples of detached pronouns (J*gii]lJjLJa)l) with a noun: 









Masculine/Feminine 


My Lord 


Our Lord 



62 



3: Pronouns 



Learning Arab c Language of the QUR'AN 



Examples of detached pronouns (J^UPjL^) with a verb: 





Singular 


Plural 


Masculine/Feminine 


He created me 


He created us 



Examples: 

"They say, ' We are but reformers/' (2:1 1) 

"Which We have sent down to Our servant." (2:23) 

"When we glorify You by praising You and exalt Your 
Holiness." (2:30) 

"And / am not a server of that which you serve," (1 09:4) 



"For you, your religion (or judgment) and for me, my 
religion (or judgment)." (109:6) 



63 



3; Pronouns 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



in 



"Our Fosterer! Give us good in this world and good „. 
the hereafter and save us from the punishment of fire " 

(2: 2(a) 



o^k% ,'3\_ 



"Anc then fear Me Alone." (2:40) 



°4 3; Pronouns 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 4 




PREPOSITIONS -^Jl^ji^ 

Words which combine with a noun or pronoun to form a phrase 
are called prepositions. 

They have meaning of their own and have an effect on nouns 
and pronouns. 

Their effect on the noun is that they will change the vowel of the last 
letter of the noun from dammah (_£.) ovfatha (-TL) to kasrah (— ). 

The prepositions which act on nouns are as follows: 



> - 


on /upon 


ji - 


to/towards 


V — 


in/with 


& - 


in 


o* - 


from/than 


" 


from/about 


31 - 


like/as 



65 



4; Prepositions 



Learning Arabic Language of the C 



JL>- - until 



J - for/to 
Examples: 

1. J^+ 4>ui -> ^Ujt 

On + hearts -> on hearts 

*'£//?<:>« their hearts and w/?o« their hearings, and 
their eyes is a covering." (2:7) 

2. j| + mui -» *uui ji 

Towards + the heaven -» towards the heaven 

"Moreover He set the balance towards the sky, th< 
balanced diem (into) seven skies (higher levels)." (2 

3. v + ^iiJ;^ ^isju 

With the people -> with the people 

"Say, 'I seek the protection of the Fosterer of mank 
(114:1) 

In + religion -> in religion. 

66 4; Preposi 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"And you see people enter the religion of Allah in 
troops." (110:2) 

Swear by + the fig -> swear by the fig 

"By the fig (or the place Teen where Nuh's ship embarked), 
and the olive (or Zaita in Jerusalam, were Isa ibn Maryam 
received and preached the message of Allah)." (95:1) 

Swear by + Allah -> swear by Allah 

"They said, 'By Allah, you know for certain." (12:73) 

7. ^>W£>1^ 
In + hunger -> in hunger 

"Who has fed them in hunger and given them security 
from fear." (106:4) 

0,, o 

8. ji + old! -> owJl ^ 

From + the right -> from the right 

67 4; Prepositions 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"From your right and from your left, in groups?" (70:37) 
Like + straw -> like straw 

"So thai He made them //'fe eaten up straw (husk)." (105:5) 

io. j + ii>i-»4ii 

For + Allah -> for Allah 

"Whatever is in the skies and whatever is in the Earth is 
Allah's." (2:284) 

Until + break -> until break 

"Peace! // as //// the appearance of dawn." (97:5) 

All the above mentioned prepositions have their effect on the 
last letter of the nouns. 

However, only four of the above prepositions i.e. <Jp, J}, ^ [3 
act on the pronouns 0, Ui, li, ji. They give kasrah (— ) to the 
first letter of the pronoun. 

68 4: Prepositions 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



There is no action of these prepositions on any other pronouns. 

Example: 

Jp + ^J* -> ^lii 
Jp+ ^ ^ J^ 
The following table displays the effect of Jp, J), <->, £| on the 



pronouns 0, lifts, la, j>. 





Him 


Them both 


? 

r* 

Them all 
(M) 


a* 
Them all 


On 


Alii 

On him 


On them 
both 


On them 
all(M) 


On them 
all(F) 


Towards 


4\ 

Towards 
Him 


^4\ 

Towards 
them both 


Tow ards 
them all 

(M) 


Towards 

them all 

(F) 


In, With 


With him 


With them 
both 


h 

With them 
all (M) 


With them 
all (F) 


In 


. 
In him 


In them 
both 


. 

In them all 
(M) 


In them all 

1 (F) 



69 



4; Prepositions 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Examples: 

'Then whosoever makes it incumbent on himself to 
perform the Hajj therein." (2: 197) 






"There will neither be any fear on them nor will they | 

grieve." (2:38) j 

I 

I 

"He misleads many with it and He guides many with it, f 
but He does not mislead anyone with it except the ( 
transgressors." (2:26) I 

As we have mentioned earlier there is no action of these prepositions 
on other pronouns. Examples for these are stated below. 

Jp + il -» iilic. - No action of Jp on 3. 

^ + o -> iL? - No action of j^> on o . 

Examples: 

/ &5 sA *>* T" 



<v ^^ 



"Forbidden /o vow (for marriage) are your mothers." (4:23) 
^ <x ^ 



.^ ^Sl-iy jJQ.^ ^j-^- <i£ J^t ^j*^ 34-^ !A^ V5^ 



*#*:*-& 



70 4; Prepositions 



Learning Arabic Language of the QURAN 



"And do not follow other ways which will part you from 
His way. That He directs you with, that you may guard 
(against evil) ."(6:153) 

"And relieve you of your burden." (94:2 

"And (turn away) from them considering themselves 
great, those are the inhabitants of the firs, they will stay 
in it." (7:36) 

Exception: 

At one place (48:10) in the Holy Qur'an there is no action of Jc- 
on a and it is read aIIp. Allah says, 

"And whoever fulfils the agreement which he has made 
with Allah, then He will give him a great reward." 
(48:10) 

In the chapter "Pronouns" we observe that the preposition "J" 
comes attached to pronouns as a prefix and takes the form of " J " 
except in the first person pronoun 4 L g'. 



71 4; Prepositions 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Masculine 


Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


3 rd person 


For him 


For them both 


For them all 


2 nd 
person 


For you 


For you both 


For you all 


1 st person 


For me 


- 


\2J 
For us all 



Examples: 






"For I Jim is the kingdom and to Him is due (all) praise." 
(64:1) 






"We v ill bring out for them a living creature from the 
Earth." (27:82) 

"Did We not expand for you your bosom." (94: 1) 



72 



4: Prepositions 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Examples: 



&6y 
Feminine 


Singular 


t-s-^ 
Dual 


et: , 

Plural 


3 rd person 


For her 


For them both 


For them all 


2 nd person 


4 
For you 


For you both 


For you all 


1 st person 


For me 


- 


For us all 



jI.m.^1^ ^r^j c£4—*j L* CjJ 



"For //, is (the benefit of) what it has earned and against 
it, is (the harm of) what it has earned." (2: 286) 

"For you your religion (or judgment) and for me my 
religion (or judgment)." (109:6) 



73 



4; Prepositions 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



! . 

N 










i "\j 






^^n 











74 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 5 




ADVERB OF TIME AND PLACE 



Some words have the same effect on the nouns and pronouns as 
the prepositions although they are not prepositions. These kind 
of words are used as adverb of time and place. 

The following are examples of such words used in the Holy Qur'an: 



Under/Beneath 


0" 


Above/Over 




Before/In front 


(Ul 


Before 


p 


After 


jJo 


Behind 


i\jj 


Between 




Around 


i}y>- 



Some 




All/Every 


* 


Other than 




Other than 




Near 


^ 


With 


c 


With/from 


iS^ld^ 



75 



5: Adverb of Time and Place 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Examples: 



'&? 



"From beneath your feet." (6:65) 
"And strive a/o/?g with His Messenger." (9:86) 
"And you were not with them." (3:44) 

/ ' ^ » * *' ' $e"*'\ Y\ 

"Nay. they live, finding their sustenance in the presence 
o/their Lord." (3:169) 

'"From the All-Wise, the All-Knowing." (27:6) 

m ISo (t^»V t _^ 5«?^j dr^j y 

"And whoever seeks a religion other than Islam." (3:85) 









"We make no distinction between any of them." (3:84) 

"And He is Omnipotent (All Powerful) over His servants ." 
(6:61 » 

"We may place them beneath our feet." (41 :29) 

76 5; Adverb of Time and Place 



= Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 6 




DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN 

Words that are used to point at some thing are known as 
Demonstrative Pronouns ( oj\£i\ ^1\ ). 

For example: v^flr^. ~ This is a b° ok ( c ° m pl ete sentence) 



^ 

4Ai£Jl dJJi - That book (incomplete sentence) 



aJ| \\Jl~a 



\\J*> 2 i (O-^]. 



In the above examples \J^J* and JlSi are Sjli^h iL-11 and ^- r >V5So\ 
and YJnlS\ are called Clj jlli (the objects pointed at). 



77 



6. Demonstrative Pronouns 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Note that by prefixing jl to the a1H jULi (4>^) the sentence 
gives an incomplete meaning as in the above example 4>IS&1 dUS 
"that book." 

SjLiMl 11). has two forms: 

^,3 

♦ Near distance - v4j-^4 ?j^ ^ r^i 

♦ Far distance - ->1*1IJ 5j^C^ r^i 

These are considered to be proper nouns or definite nouns. 

Table for demonstrative Pronouns- near distance - s^ill ojli^l ill: 



; : :';-' ■'■'*■■• 


Singular 


■ '.■■■■ - V - '■'; .,:; , / . :.:,;■-.■- ■... 


Plural 


Dual 


Masculine 


This 


These (two) 


These (all ) 






These (two) 
(Accusative & Genetive Case) 




Feminine 


This 


These (two) 


These (all) 






These (two) 
(Accusative & Genetive Case) 





78 



6: Demonstrative Pronouns 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



There is a plural form in the demonstrative pronouns that is 
common to both genders - /^ - which is used only for human 
beings. Otherwise the singular form of the feminine - oli - is 
enough to refer to the collective of plural non- human nouns and 
broken plurals. 
Example: 



>sl'l 



"This is yours community." (23:52) 
Examples: 

"And this is a book confirming (it) in Arabic language." 
(46:12) 

/ " • 1 X< " * > > Y\ 1i- v 

"He said, 'I am Yusuf and /A/s is my brother.'" (12:90) 

"They said These two are surely magicians." (20:63) 

"How will this be brought (back) to life by Allah after its 
death?" (2:259) 

79 6; Demonstrative Pronouns 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"Say, 'This is my way, I invite towards Allah. '"(12:108) 

"77/zs community of yours is certainly one community." 
(21:92) 



ss"S yf j. 



"But do not go near this tree." (2:35) 

"Then you are the persons who kill your own people." 
(2:85) 

Note: If the demonstrative pronoun comes in a possessive sentence 
it will come alter the possessive phrase. 






OW-* 



"He said, 4 I intend to marry you to one of these two 
daughters of mine. (28:27).'" 

"Go with //?/5 shirt of mine and put it on the face of my 
father." 1 (12:93) 



80 6: Demonstrative Pronouns 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Table for demonstrative pronouns- far distance - -4^ lj\iy\ ^L\: 





Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


Masculine 


That 


Those (two) 


Those (all) 






Those (two) 
(Accusative & Genetive Case) 




Feminine 


That 


^15 
Those (two) 


Those (all) 






Those (two) 
(Accusative & Genetive Case) 





The plural form - JAsJjl - is common to both genders in far 
distance demonstrative pronouns and is used only for human 
beings. Otherwise the singular form of the feminine dlb is used 
to refer to the broken plurals. 

"Those messengers." (2:253) 

"These are the Signs of Allah:' (2:252) 

81 6: Demonstrative Pronouns 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Examples: 



"This is the Book; in it is guidance sure, without doubt." 
(2:2) 

^ cf*> tj^ (M^"> L^3 Jl/Ji d^ y 

77ias£? messengers, We had made some to excel others." 

(2:253) 

In the above examples, iUS and 3l3 are also used for things of 
the near distance in order to emphasize the greatness or 
seriousness of the object pointed at. 

"He (Musa) said, 'That is what we have been seeking for."' 
(18:64) 

So fAas*' fwo, are the proofs (of your prophethood) from 
your Fosterer." (28:32) 

"Those are on guidance from their Fosterer and those 
are the persons who are successful." (2:5) 



82 6: Demonstrative Pronouns 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



4 t^<^^^ti*4£ L^vi^^ 

"That is (something) of what my Fosterer has taught 
me." (12:37) 

"77za/ is Allah your Fosterer, so serve Him. Will you not 
then mind?" (10:3) 

Note: In the last two examples U&S and ^MS are used. 
Although they seem like dual and plural they are singular but the 
pronouns used are dual and plural. 

UiU 'here' and diilli 'there and then' are demonstrative 
pronouns for place and time, e.g. 

"So you and your Fosterer go and fight, we will certainly 
sit here." (5:24) 

"77zm? did Zakariyya pray to his Fosterer." (3:38) 



83 6: Demonstrative Pronouns 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'Ah 




84 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 7 




RELATIVE PRONOUN 



Relative nouns relate to or depend on the word before or after them. 
They indicate a particular thing but do not make complete sense. 





Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


Masculine 


That one who/ 
That one which 


Those two who/ 
Those two which 


6^ 

Those all who/That 
who/Those which 






Those two who/ 

Those two which 

(Accusative & 

Genetive Case) 




Feminine 


That one who/ 
That one which 


Those two \\ ho/ 
Those two which 


Those who/ 
Those which 



85 



7: Relative Pronoun 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Those two who/ 

Those two which 

(Accusative & 

Genetive Case) 



The relative sentence that follows the relative pronoun is called 
£jJatf. It completes the meaning of the relative sentence. 

When the relative pronoun refers to any part of the aJu^JI except 
the subject it must be repeated by an attached pronoun known as 
the Julc or %=>r^ For example: 



u^lZA £&j&j&\&& ,£\'Mj®ty 




(J^vS^JI a-*m\ 



"Then be on your guard against the fire prepared for the 
infidels whose fuel will be human beings and stones." (2:24) 

Here \i is the attached pronoun - i>-|3 : 
Examples: 

"And if those who do not believe fight with you, they 
would certainly turn (their) backs." (48:22) 

86 7; Relative Pronoun 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"Those who believe and do righteous works." (13:29) 

"And as for the two men who are guilty of the (indecency) 
from among you." (4:16) 

"Our Fosterer! Show us those who misled us from among 
the jinn and human beings." (41:29) 

"Repel (evil) with that which is better. Then he between whom 
and you was enmity would become an intimate friend." (41 :34) 

{ pS=$Z, « Hem ^JC Jfy 

"And as for those of your women who are guilty of 
indecency." (4:15) 

"And for those of your women who have passed the age 
of menstruation." (65:4) 



"And your step daughters under your guardianship (born) 
of your wives unto whom you have gone in." (4:23) 

87 7: Relative Pronoun 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



'Their mothers are none other than those who gave them 
birth" (58:2) 

°y (who/whoever), U (what/whatever) are also used as relative 
nouns. \^ is used for living things and U is used for non-living things. 
Examples: 

"And among mankind is he who disputes regarding Allah 
without knowledge." (22:3) 

"He prays to him whose harm is nearer than his benefit." 

(22:13) 

"Whoever does righteous work, whether male or female..." 
(16:^7) 

"And We will definitely reward, those who are patient, 
with their reward (which will be) better than that which 
they used to do "(16:96) 






4 T/?(// which is with you passes away and that which is 
with Allah remains." (16:96) 

88 7: Relative Pronoun 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 8 




INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN 

Words used in the beginning of a sentence to ask a question are 
called interrogatives. 



What 


U/lSU 


Why 


^/liUJ 


Who 


j* 


For whom/for which 

G^ + J) 


•rl 


What 


s~ 


did 


> 


When 


Jr° 


Since 


i ° > 


Where 


J 


In what (li+j^) 


Uli 



From where/ Mow come 


Ji 


How 


^— ~ 


How much 


3= 


When 


6$ 


Which one/ whose (masc.) 


it 


Which one/whose (Fern) 


£f 


Do 


„ i 

f 1 


About what (U+ji) 


lli/li 


From what 


ULo/l-o 



89 



8; Interrogative Pronoun 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Examples: 

"They said, 'You! Are you indeed Yusuf ?" (12:90) 

"Say. ' JfTraf thing is greater (as) witness'?" (6; 1 9) 
"Do vou think that you will enter the garden?" (2:214) 

"WTzr is there who can recommend to Him except by 
His permission? (2:255) 

"And w/?a/ is that in the right hand, O Moses?" (20:17) 



They ask you w/za/ they should spend." (2:21 5) 
"fT/y- do you say that which you do not do?" (6:2) 

90 8: Interrogative Pronoun 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"He said, 'O Maryam! From where (does) this (provision) 
come to you'?" (3:37) 

"(She) said, 'O My Fosterer! How can I have a son."' (3:47) 



"How long did you stay (in the state of death)." (2:259) 



'Wow We set them together." (2:259) 

"He (Allah) said, ' What\ Do you not believe'?" (2:260) 

"7b w/zow? belongs the power this day?" (40: 16) 



i'fl&i& 



"Where are those whom you claimed (that they were 
Our) partners?" (6:22) 



"And how would you reject" (3:101) 



91 8; Interrogative Pronoun 



Learning Arabic Language of the QURV 



"Do you really bear witness?" (6:19) 

"Then which of the favors of your Lord will ye deny 
(55:13) 

"About what do they ask one another?" (78: 1 ) 

"So let man see from what he was created." (86:5) 

"When will Allah's help come?" (2:214) 

"They ask, 'When is the Day of Judgment'?" (51:12) 

"J^/k; created the skies and the Earth?" (29:6 1 ) 

"7o ir/7/c/7 place of turning back they will turn back 
(20:227) 

92 8: Interrogative Pronoi 



s =^= sa -»---i»^^= Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 

"Which of you has this (chapter of the Qur'an) increased 
in belief?" (9:124) 

The combination of j^ and j£ is jlc (from whom) or ji is 
combined with jM, the conjunction (or) as °^*\ (or how/or who). 

"Is he who devoutly prostrates and stands (for worship) 
during the hours of night. . ." (39:9) 

Wj *+Zi\ <^Uj cr*\f 



"Or who is it that has power ovei* the hearing and the 
sight?" (10:31) 

"Who is it, Who has created the skies and the Earth?" 

(27:60) 

"JfTzo is it, Who responds to the distressed when he prays 
to Him?" (27:62) 



93 8; Interrogative Pronoun 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




94 



Learning Arabic Lanpuage of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 9 




POSSESSIVE PHRASE 



The possessive phrase is a combination of two nouns in which 
the first noun is owned by or in possession of the second noun. 

Examples: 



4il\jtf 


Allah's fire/Fire of Allah 


*h\ SjfLj 


Allah's Prophet 


4&\ j^Li 


Allah's Help 


5y$~\ ^4-^ 


The story of the armies 


oUaLiJl ^y*- 


The group of satans 


o>l^U 


The companion of the fish 


J*^fjS 


The Day of Decision 



95 



9: Possessive Phrase 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



In English the possession can be denoted by apostrophe 'S' or 
by the use of the word "of", as displayed in the above examples. 

♦ In a possessive phrase, the first noun is called ^JLkJl (possessed) 
and the second noun is called Ci\ i->UkUl (possessor). 

♦ o>UkUl will always be an indefinite (common) noun and it 
will never have the article ' Jl ' with it. 

♦ oUklSi cai ha^e the a raab dammah {~L),fatha (—) or kasrah 
(-7-) on it but it will never have nunnation i^J^I * <Jt ). 

♦ The second noun, the <J\ uiUklH is generally (but not 
always) a proper noun or otherwise is particularized by 
prefixing ' Jl \ 

Examples in which ^\ liUklM is a common noun: 



^^ J^jJJ^ >£$ 



"This (Qur'an) is certainly the word of an honored 
messenger"' (69:40) 

< YA 9 -" ll*' *'*' \i>S" v 

^ L$U* <£juj &u» fyjr^J # 



"And j he requital of an evil is an evil similar to it." (42:40) 






"So whoever does good equivalent in weight, even to a 
small particle, will see it." (99:7) 

96 9: Possessive Phrase 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"And from the evil of the envier when he envies." 
(113:5) 

♦ The last letter of the aJ} o>UkUl wili alv ays have tanwin 
kasrah (— ) or kasrah (— ) i.e it will always be dqd (genitive). 

♦ ^d\ oLalU can also be in the form of a pronoun. However 
the pronoun will not bear kasrah (— ) on it. 

Examples: 






"So that I may complete My favor on you." (2: 1 50) 



"His wealth and that which he earned will not save him." 
(111:2) 

"While Allah was their Guardian. And on Allah then, let 
the believers (put their) trust." (3:122) 

"But if you are patient and guard yourselves, their plot 
will not harm you in anything." (3: 1 20) 

97 9: Possessive Phrase 



— = ==«= »- -_ Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 

"In her neck (there will be) a rope of palm-fibre!" (1 1 1 :5) 
"Do not dr ve them out from their houses" (65:1) 

"For you your religion (or judgment) and for me my 
religion (or judgment)." (109:6) 

"And those who deny Our signs and (turn away) from 
them considering themselves great." (7:36) 

— ~~ I 

"Why do you stop from the path of Allah, one who believes, | 
seeking crookedness in it." (3:99) I 

I 

^^ i 

"And hold together (and be united) through the rope of f 
Allah and do not be divided." (3: 103) I 

"And on //?<? Day of Resurrection, they will be sent towards 
a severe punishment." (2:85) 

98 9: Possessive Phrase 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"Did you not consider how your Fosterer dealt with the 
owners of the elephant?" (105:1) 

"Those will be the inhabitants of the fire, in it they will 
stay." (2:39) 

"He has surely gone astray from the balanced way" (2:108) 

"And that is the reward of the doers of good" (5:85) 

♦ If the <J>U^ is dual or plural the 'o will be dropped in 
possession. Thus "g^"and "g^L" become "1— "and "^— ", 
"Oj—" and "^— " become ">*-" and "£_" respectively in 
the nominative. 

"No! Both His Hands are spread out" (5:64) 



99 9: Possessive Phrase 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"So We made this (event) an exemplary punishment for 
those who were in front of them (witnessing it) and those 
who came after them." (2:66) 

"O children of Israeli Remember My favor with which I 
favored you." (2:40) 

Note: The body parts which are in pairs will always be dual and 
considered feminine. 

♦ If the demonstrative noun (sjli,)!l ^1) comes in a possessive 

sentence it will come after the possessive phrase. 
Examples: 



£ <jClJb ^jjl (^J^v^iX^ol ^\ JjJ ^\ 3u : 



"He said, 'I intend to marry you to one of these two 
daughters of mine'" (28:27) 

"Go with //?/s shirt of miner (12:93) 



100 9: Possessive Phrase 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 10 




DESCRIPTIVE PHRASE 

9 as 

tf» % S } 



The descriptive phrase is a combination of two nouns wherein 
the second noun describes the first. In such cases the second 
noun will be an adjective. 

The first noun is called eJ^jlJf or Cjyclii 

The second noun i.e. the adjective is called dLisJ or d. 



l3j^?JJI and cLL^JI will be in full agreement with each other in 
terms of 



♦ TYPE : definite (tiJ2\) and indefinite (sjSCsJI) 

If the noun is a definite noun then the adjective will also be 
definite. Similarly if the noun is an indefinite noun then the 
adjective will also be indefinite. 

Some examples of indefinite nouns are listed below: 



101 



10: DiscHptive Phrase 



=s= - ssss;== = t ^—= Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 

"And for them there is a great punishment ." (2:7) 

"(As) he is your o/?^ enemy." (36:60) 

"'Peace,' (will be) the word from f/ie Merciful Fosterer!' 
(36:58) 
Some examples of definite nouns are listed below: 



I 



Jj\y^\'£&A^3 



> ^ 



"And your Fosterer, He is certainly the Mighty, the 
Mercifitir (26:68) 

"Guide us to the straight path ." (1:6) 
♦ GENDER - ^J^- : masculine or feminine. 

If the noun is masculine then the adjective will also be 

masculine and vice versa. 

Some examples of masculine nouns: 

102 10: Discriptive Phrase 



======^=™ Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 

"(It is) the piercing star"' (86:3) 

"He will be called to account, with an easy accountability:" 
(84:8) 

A feminine noun will have the adjective feminized with " S " called 
Some examples of feminine nouns: 

"Then he will lead a life of pleasure? (101 :7) 
/ -'i i' -'■^' r \ 

"The denying, sinful forelock? (96: 1 6) 
♦ NUMBER - SjJJt: singular, dual or plural. 

If the noun is singular the adjective will also be singular. Similar 

is the case for duals and plurals. 

Examples: 

"Certainly this is a Glorious Quran? (85: 21) 

"Certainly, those are clear signs in the bosoms of those 
who are given knowledge." (29:49) 

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CASE ENDING (E'raab - ^Yfc\ ) : 

If the noun is in nominative, accusative or genitive case, the 
adjective will also be in the nominative, accusative or genitive 

case respectively. 

Ji or Nominative- *sj]i ilti i.e. _™L 

_£„ or Accusative - t_^£j\ SJli- i.e. — 

* ^^ 
~T" or Genitive-^ Ji-l illi- i.e. T~ 

Nominativ-i: ^ JL^Jl J^l^yb d^i <2KJ <^5Li$ ^ 

"A grace from your Fosterer, that is the grart 
achievement" (44:57) 



Accusative . 



"Reward from your Fosterer, a gift (for the) account 
(of good deeds) r (78:36) 



Genitive: 



"For a Great Day " (83:5) 

If u^J^lll is a broken plural or a group of non-living things, 

then the eJLJl will be singular and feminine. 

Examples: 



104 



10: Discriptive Phrase 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



'Therein are raised couches." (88: 1 3) 
"And cushions set in rows." (88: 15) 
"And carpets spread" (88: 16) 

"Andpwre raates and pleasure from Allah." (3:15) 

In a possessive phrase (^U?^ 4^/^ ) thc ^-^ wil1 be 
considered a proper noun therefore its adjecive will be made 
definite by adding the article "J( ". 

Example: 

1. f\>\4i>id4: 

The /zo/y /?owse of Allah. 
1^ is a common noun. However here it comes in the possessive 
case and acts as J>UkUl and will thus because a proper noun. 
The definite article " Ji " is added to the adjective ^VJ>~ to bring 
it in agreement with the proper noun. 

105 10: Discriptive Phrase 



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'These are Verses of the Book that makes (things) clear." 

(28:2: 

oh-UI is the adjective of ^liSLlI and they are in agreement with 
each other in terms of number, gender etc. 

3. (LkiJ' 4iil i4? 



The great house of Allah. 

-Oil CXu 



The house of Allah, the Greatest. 1 

In the above sentences it is clearly understood by the E'raab - j 
v 3 ^! which noun the adjective is describing. jj 



106 10: Discriptive Phrase 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'A 




Chapter 1 1 




SIMPLE NOMINAL SENTENCE 

Th 
A nominal sentence generally comprises of two components. Tl 

subject of the sentence is called UillM and the predicate is calk 

Calle 

For example: 

Muhammad is a messenger. 
lift is the subject (1I£U1) and j^ij is the predicate (^3U). 

"And Allah is the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing." (24:2: 
Here &\ is the subject, (Uilill) and jLlE L^ is the predica 

(£4 



107 11: Simple Nominal Sentet 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



THE SUBJECT 



9- 

Ijolill is a proper noun (aI^IH). If it is not a proper noun then 
the article 'JT will be prefixed. 



ilsT, 



Jl>Jl 



The Qur'an is a book. 
It is in the nominative case, *lpl iJL>. (JL or jl). 

It will be in agreement with the predicate in terms of number 
(Sliil) and gender (JJJ-1). 

"And you were unjust." (2:92) 

Ijillll can be a word or a phrase but it cannot be a verb or a 
genitive phrase. 

"77?e //70A7 honored of you with Allah is certainly the one 
who guards most (against evil)." (49:13) 

"The free for the free." (2:178) 

1 08 11: Simple Nominal Sentence 



Learning Arabic Language of the OUR'AN 



THE PREDICA TE -$»\ : 

It is always a common noun (s^S^Jl). 

The^iU is fj$y* ( _ ^or /). 

The predicate generally agrees with the subject in number 
(singular, dual or plural) and in gender (masculine or feminine). 

When Ijollil is a broken plural of non-human objects (J|li J£) 
the predicate will be feminine singular. For example, 

"Their houses fallen down." (27:52) 
The^pU can be a proper noun when it is not an adjective. 



X 



"You are our Gaurdian." (2:286) 
cJl is the subject (Ijillll), and \^iy> is the predicate ( j&\). 

j • \\ y ' '" * > > Hv 

"I am Yusuf and this is my brother." (12:90) 

In a nominal sentence that has a predicate as a proper noun a 
detached pronoun (which is in accordance with the subject in 
gender and number) is placed between the subject and the 
predicate. 

1 09 11: Simple Nominal Sentence 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Examples: 



> , - * \f > > 



"And those are the persons who are successful. " (2:5) 

can be a word, phrase or a sentence. It can also be a genitive 
phrase. 



"All Praise is due only for Allah, the Fosterer of the 
worlds." (1:2) 

"And your God is One God." (2:163) 

If the predicate is a sentence, then a pronoun is used which points 
towards the subject. 

"Those who are humble during their worship (salat)" 

(23:2) 

"And who is more unjust than one who hides a testimony 
which he has from Allah?" (2:140) 



110 11; Simple Nominal Sentence 



Examples: 



Learning Arabic Language of the GUR'AN 



"And Allah is the Mighty, the Inflictor of retribution." (3:4) 

"Those are the limits (imposed by) Allah." (2:229) 

^ ifjR LLC d^ 

"Those are the signs of the Qur'an." (27:1) 

"This is clear magic." (27:13) 



111 11: Simple Nominal Sentence 



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112 



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Chapter 12 




VERB 

Verb is an action word in relation to time that is past, present 
and future. According to tense, the verbs can be divided into: 

Past tense (^ UJ1 ji^O : Here the action has been completed, 
therefore it is past tense. 

Present tense (9j\Ja$\ Ji^) : Jt is also called imperfect tense 
because the action is incomplete i.e. it is being done in the 
present or will be done in the future. 

Past Tense — ^\X\ <J*^t 

In Arabic, verbs are mostly tri-literal i.e. three lettered. They are 
of two kinds: 

1. Consonant Verbs - i^J^\ JliiSfi : They are based on three 
sound consonants. This chapter deals with these kinds of 
verbs. 



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Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



2. Weak Verbs - aJo*JI JUiNl: These are called weak verbs and 
may have one or more of the vowels (^ -j -\) in their tri- 
literal formation. These vowels (t_£-j -\) are called iLJl <Jjji. 

For example: 

ic-J _ to promise 
Jll - to say 
ijj - to throw 

We will deal with the weak verbs in subsequent chapters. 
Consonant Verbs - X*L?*^\ Jt*£¥l 

♦ The basic or root word is based on the verb Jii (J-P -<J ) 
giving the meaning "He did". <_i represents the first radical, 
^ the second and J the third radical. The root verb is always 
masculine-third person-singular. 

Likewise some other examples are: 



L-J 



>s& 



To hit 



tcj> - To open 

y^ - To help 

♦ The a 'raab (<^\^h^\ i) of letter t_> and J is not variable 

in the root, but the a 'raab (<Jji^ * ) on f- is variable, 

i.e. it can bear fatha (—), kasrah (— ) or dammah (_L). 

114 12;F£r6 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Examples: 







u*^ 


to deny 


to listen 


to be genorous 


to see 


to drink 


to be far distant 


J" 

to enter 


6> 

to grieve 


,- > ^ 
to be good 



Past tense table of JiS (<J-^-lJ ) is as follows: 



ll§g^lf? : ^ 


Singular 


iiiip^i iii 


1)1 


3 rd person masculine 


He did 


They both did 


They all did 


3 rd person feminine 


She did 


They both did 


^ 

They all did 


2 n person masculine 


You did 


You both did 


liiii 
You all did 


2 nd person feminine 


^ 

You did 


Iliiii 
You both did 


You all did 


First person 
(Masculine/Feminine) 


I did 


- 


tfiiS 
We did 



115 



12; KerA 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



From the above teble we note the following important points: 

♦ With the addition of letters i.e. suffixes to the root JiS (-o 
J-p), the meaning of the verb will change. There are no 
prefixes used. 

In every verb there is a corresponding pronoun hidden in the 
word. Therefore, we do not need to use explicit pronouns to 
specify the doer. The following table shows the corresponding 
pronoun hidden in each verb formation. 

Also note the suffixes added to JiS to make the pattern. 





Singular 


Dual 


Plural ;; 


3 rd person 
Masculine 


He did 


They both did 


They all did 


Suifix- 


Hidden 
pronoun 

3* 


Suffix 

1 


Hidden 
pronoun 

tli 


Suffix 



15 


Hidden 
pronoun 


3 rd person 
Feminine 


She did 


They both did 


6^ 

They all did 


Suffix 


Hidden 
pronoun 


Suffix 

IS 


Hidden 
pronoun 


Suffix 

0* 


Hidden 
pronoun 



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12; Verb 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



ond 

2 person 
Masculine 


You did 


You both did 


liiii 
You all did 


Suffix 

Oo 


Hidden 
pronoun 


Suffix 

w3o 


Hidden 
pronoun 


Suffix 

9 

Jo 


Hidden 
pronoun 


oJ^l^- Oo iLa 

2 person 
Feminine 


o ^ 

You did 


You both did 


You all did 


Suffix 

Oo 


Hidden 
pronoun 


Suffix 


Hidder 
pronoun 


Suffix 
O^ 


Hidden 
pronoun 


First person 
(Masculine/ 

Feminine) 


I did 


- 


We did 


Suffix 

Oo 


Hidden 
pronoun 

lit 






Suffix 


Hidden 
pronoun 



kJm is on the pattern of J*l and 3J6 is on the pattern of J*i. 



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12; K«?r£ 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



The past tense table of *^L is as follows: 











3 r person masculine 


He heard 


They both 
heard 


.... , 

They all 
heard 


3 rd person feminine 


*- ^ 
She heard 


They both 
heard 


They all 
heard 


2 nd person masculine 


You heard 


rj:^-,, 


1° " 

You all 
heard 


You both 
heard 


2 nd person feminine 


You heard 


yl* - 

You both 
heard 


You all 
heard 


First person 
(Masculine/Feminine) 


I heard 


- 


We heard 



118 



12; FerA 



Learning Arabic Language of the GUR'AN 



The Past tense table of lis is as follows: 



: " 


Singular 




Plural 


3 rd person masculine 


Jotj 

He became 
distant 


They both 
became 
distant 


They all 
became 
distant 


3 r person feminine 


OJou 

She became 
distant 


They both 
became 
distant 


They all 
became 
distant 


2 n person masculine 


You became 
distant 


You both 
became 
distant 


You all 
became 
distant 


2 n person feminine 


You became 
distant 


\ *- i ° > - 

You both 
became 
distant 


You all 
became 
distant 


First person 
(Masculine/Feminine) 


1 became 
distant 


- 


We became 
distant 



119 



12; f^r/. 



Examples: 



=^== Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"Did you not consider, how your Fosterer dealt with the 
owners of the elephant?" (105: 1) 

"Who believe in the unseen and establish worship (salai) 
and spend from that which We have provided for them'' 
(2:3) 

"That Allah is displeased with them and they will stay 
in the punishment." (5:80) 

^ jL-J^ft L^Ui bOJb cJbid C-iU 1>U ^ 

'They said, 'Did vow rfo /Aw to our gods, O Ibrahim?" 1 

(21:62) 

"So the r commerce is of wo gain, and they do not receive 
guidance." (2:16) 

"And v hen We (Allah) said to the angels, 'Bow down 
before Adam,' they bowed down except Iblis." (2:34) 

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Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"Though earlier they were seeking a \ ictory over those 
who did not believe" (2:89) 

"And when they went out against Jalvc and his forces." 

(2:250) 

"Until when /?<? reached the setting place of the sun 
(west)." (18:86) 



"Then, do those who do not believe brink that they can 
take My servants as guardians besides Me?" (18:102) 

Sometimes in second person masculine plural "/' is added for the 
flow of pronunciation. It does not imply any meaning to the word. 



"And now you have come to Us Alone as We had created 
you." (6:94) 



121 12; Ker6 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"It is tht same to you whether you invite them or you be 
silent" (7:193) 

"And wiien vow withdraw from them and that which they 
serve (worship) except Allah, then seek refuge in the 

cave." (.8:1(5) 

If the third person masculine plural \£il comes with a pronoun, 
the alif , M' of \U*S will be dropped. 

"Nor did they (usually) forbid one another the iniquities 
which they committed" (5:79) 



jjili=£ [*4— ^ ^>>& J^J t^JJp Ujj 



"To us they did no harm, but they harmed their own souls." 

(2:57) 

"Then those who believe in him and honor him and help 
him and follow the light that is sent down with him." (7: 157) 



The Use of II 



The word c jJ' gives the meaning of eertainly/verily/has/have/ 
indeed. It is used before the past perfect tense. 

122 M;Verb 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"Allah has indeed heard the statement of her who pleads 
with you concerning her husband." (58:1) 

"And We indeed sent down clear signs." (58:5) 

"Successful indeed axe the believers." (23:1) 

"We /Weed know that which the Earth reduces from them." 
(50:4) 






"Allah has zwfe?J appointed for you (the procedure for 
the) dissolution of your oaths." (66:2) 

Sometimes an additional ' j' is prefixed to 'is' which further 
emphasizes the meaning of the verb and is written as ' jJD\ 

Examples: 

"We had indeed created man in the best form." (95:4) 

123 12; Verb 



— Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 

"Wr had indeed taken a pledge from the children of Israel." 

(5:7:)) 

"Allah has indeed turned (mercifully) to the prophet." 

(9:117) 

L: 4S ^ >^ Jj^i juJ^ ^ 

"And he had indeed led astray a large group of people 
fron among you." (36:62) 

# t3^>-l ^Tr* a't; -«i> # 

"An 1 he indeed saw him (Jibreel) in another descent." 
(53: =3) 



124 12; PM 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 13 




VERBAL SENTENCE 

In a verbal sentence, the sentence begins with a verb. For example: 

"And Dawood fc//ted Jahit " (2:251) 

Verbal sentence comprises a verb, subject and an object. Usually 
the verb comes first followed by the subject and then the object. 



Object Subject Verb 
The subject and the object are nouns. The subject is called 
jflitf and the object is called SJ*jC^\ or ^ J^iO. 



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The subject (Jc-Uli) is always in a nominative state i.e «3$l £ft> 
bearing dammah (JL) or tanwin dammah (JL) on it. 
Example: 

The object (aj J^iilSl) is always in an accusative state i.e.c-^JI *JU 

bearingfatha (JL) or tanwin fatha (JJ) on it. 

Example: 

When the noun follows a preposition it will be in the genitive 
state i.e. Jil tTu with a kasrah (— ) or tanwin kasrah (-7-). 

"They said, ' JFe fte/ieve in Allah Who is One.'" (40:84) 

"Allah /oo^anw their light." (2:17) 
Pronouns are not required to be mentioned separately as subject 
( Jc-uli) because they are hidden in the verb itself. For example: 

cLiii - I created. 
In 'cJiii' the hidden pronoun is "I". 

126 13; Verbal Sentence 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"And when We parted the sea for you and delivered you." 
(2:50) 

^ 

In 'U5y' the hidden pronoun is 'we'. 

When the object (aj J^iilll) is a pronoun, it i sually precedes the 
subject (JcAUi) after the verb. 

"Except the one who is permitted by the Beneficent and 
he speaks aright." (78:38) 

"So Musa struck him with his fist thus ki 1 ling him." (28: 1 5) 

If the subject is in the form of a broken plural of non-human 
objects, the verb used will be feminine singular. 

"Those are the persons whose deeds have become 
fruitless in the world and the hereafter." (3:22) 

If the subject (Jc-litf) is given in a sentence (not in the form of 
hidden pronoun) then a singular verb is used irrespective of the 
subject (singular, dual or plural). If a second verb is required, 
then it should be according to the subject. 

127 13; Verbal Sentence 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"When the hypocrites come to you they say, 'We bear 
witness thai you are certainly a Messenger of Allah.'" 
(63:1) 

Here, *li- is a singuhr verb even though the object C)yas\lli\ is plural 
The second verb \yi is a plural verb in accordance with o^liDl. 

Examples: 

\ - ^ — - — . 

"And responds to its Fosterer, a duty incumbent on it." 

(84:2) 



i cJ/*a»J 



\ \a , vJlJ kI*^ % 



"(Every) soul (everyone) will know what (deeds) it has 
brought for presentation." (81:14) 

"He (Muhamtnad)/row/7£<iand turned his back." (80:1) 

if Y^ C,/T \^<^* "' ' Y 

"He raised its height and then set it in equilibrium." f 

(79:28) 

"And We created you in pairs." (78: 8) 

128 13: Verbal Sentence 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



^ uLJ^ jt^y ^^rJ w 

"And We made your sleep for rest." (78:9) 

"Allah sets forth an example for those who do not believe/' 
(66:10) 

"He created the skies and the Earth in reality." (64:3) 






"Wfe too£ a pledge from you (children of Israel) and raised 
the mountain above you." (2:63) 

"When it rose, move away from their cave to the right." 

(18:17) 

"So when /Aey reached the junction between the two 
(seas), they both forgot their fish." ( 1 8:61) 



129 13; Verbal Sentence 



Learning Arabic Language oft 




130 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




. ' ., 






' • •■' ; ■■ ■'■.,• '• 


Chapter 14 











HAMZATED VERB 

*° * ° t i "V ♦ t< 
J3-^il JjloJI 




Verbs with hamzah (\) as initial, middle or final radical are 
called hamzated verbs (j^iilM J*^0 • 
1. Hamzah as the first radical: 

The hamzah is a consonant. Hence it can be the initial or first 
radical For example: 

j?l - to eat jJ»\ - to take 

There is no change in the past tense conjugation. It follows the same 
pattern as JiS. Past tense conjugation of jf!l is as tabulated below: 



*?:■■.■ r " '".■'''■. ■ < ^S^"v'w^'/ ■' 


Singular 




Ijlili^lll 


3 person masculine 


He ate 


They both ate 


They all ate 


3 rd person feminine 


She ate 


They both ate 


They all ate 



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14: Hamzated Verb 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



■ ■ 

2 nd person masculine 


You ate 


You both ate 


You all ate 


2 n person feminine 


You ate 


You both ate 


You all ate 


First person 
(Masculine/Feminine) 


dill 
I ate 


- 


We ate 



2. Hamzah as the middle radical, for example: 

JU, - to ask 

Ixlu - to disgust 

si- 
Past tense conjugation of JUL is as follows: 





Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


3 rd person masculine 


He asked 


They both asked 


They all asked 


3 person feminine 


She asked 


Isftl 
They both asked 


They all asked 


2 nd person masculine 


cLJUL 
You asked 


0% 

You both asked 


You all asked 



132 



14: Hamzated Verb 



«^ Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



2 nd person feminine 



First person 
(Masculine/Feminine) 



You asked 



I asked 



You both asked 



You all asked 



We asked 



It follows the same pattern as the root word jii. 
3. Hamzah as the third radical, for example: 
VJ> - to read 

V;3 - to repell 
Past tense conjugation of \y is as follows: 





Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


3 rd person masculine 


He read 


They both read 


4$ 

They all read 


3 rd person feminine 


* -* 
She read 


They both read 


They all read 


2 nd person masculine 


You read 


You both read 



You all read 



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14; Hamzated Verb 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



2 nd person feminine 




You read 




You both read 




sit- 

You all read 


JSoLa 

First person 
(Masculine/Fe min i ne) 




I read 


- 


We read 



It follows the same pattern as the root word J*i. 
Examples: 

'They will not speak, except the one who is permitted by 
the Beneficent and he speaks aright." (78:38) 

"And responds to its Fosterer, a duty incumbent on it." (84:2) 

"Do you not know that your father had taken an undertaking 
from you in (the name of) Allah." (12:80) 

4 (jb y ^ <-^-* ^~ ^ 

"A questioner asked about the punishment to befall " (70: 1) 

"So when you recite the Qur'an, seek the protection of 
Allah from the accursed devil." (16:98) 



134 



1 4; Hamzated Verb 



Learning Arabic Larguage of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 15 




WEAK VERBS-I 



ajSjkVtt i^ivi 



Assimilated Verb -^! 

Words in which the vowels (tS -j -\) are present are called weak 
verbs. We have seen that when alif, M' comes with any of the 
e'raab C ^ * ) it is not alif> M' but /zamztf V as in the hamzated 
verbs (j^lJV). 

There are three types of weak verbs based on the positions taken 
by the weak letters (<£ -j -\) in the root word JiS. 

Assimilated verb - JliJI 

Hollow Verb - J^Sti 



Defective Verb 



u°t 



\SS\ 



When we deal with weak verbs we notice thai they deviate from 
the pattern of the root word jiS, and we, therefore, study each kind 
in detail along with the exceptions we encounter in the pattern. 



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15; Weak Verbs-I 



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In this chapter, we will deal with the assimilated verb ( JILJI) in 
detail and tae hollow verb (J^Sll) and defective verb (Jailsll) 
will be discussed in the following chapters. 

ASSIMILATED VERB - *J%\ 

In this kind c f verb, the initial radical is weak, i.e j or ^ and comes in 
the place of J. The patterns will be according to the pattern of Jii 
and you will not observe any change. They are of two basic kinds. 

iSj\^ J&^ Vv nere j comes in place of J , the first radical. 

l&j - > o promise 

Ojj ~ To weigh 

jS-j - To obtain/get 
Past tense conj ligation of Ic-J is as follows: 





Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


3 r person masculine 


He 
promised 


They both 
promised 


They all 
promised 


3 r person feminine 


She 
promised 


They both 
promised 


5^3 

They all 
promised 



136 



15; Weak Verbal 



Learning Arabic Lsiguage of the QUR'AN 



2 nd person masculine 


You 
promised 


You ; -)Oth 

promised 


You all 
promised 


2 nd person feminine 


You 
promised 


> ,. * =■ ^ ^ 

'-a-1 — .C-J 

You wth 
promised 


You all 
promised 


First person 
(Masculine/Feminine) 


» ^ ^ 

I promised 


- 


We promised 



"Then w/*£?w s/k? delivered it, she st id, 4 My Fosterer! / 
We delivered it a female.'" (3:36) 

"And found mar it a people." (1 8:86) 



"So Musa s/n/c£ A/w with his fist thus killing him." (28: 1 5) 

"And J^e granted him Ishaq and Yaqub in addition (as a 
grandson)." (21:72) 

"When the event befalls." (56:1) 

137 ^: Weak Verbs-I 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



JUI JliJI : Here ^ comes in place of the first radical d>. 

Examples: 

J^-o - To become easy 

J~& - To dishearten 

^jluJ - To become dry 

Past tense conjugation of the verbj^i is as follows: 



Sit & 



j^ 



3rd 



3 person masculine 



C_-ol6 Colo 

3 r person leminine 



liHlil 

Singular 



He lost hope 



Dual 



They both 
lost hope 



Plural ^ 



They all 
lost hope 



u^ ii 



Jca 



^nd 



2 person masculine 



c-Jsl^ C-J 1L0 



She lost hope 



They both 
lost hope 



You lost hope 



■>nd 



2nd r 

person tern mine 



First person 
(Masculine/Feminine) 



You lost hope 



You both 
lost hope 



You both I You all 



They all 
lost hope 



You all 
lost hope 



I lost hope 



lost hope 



lost hope 



We lost hope 



138 



15; WeakVerbs-I 



» Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Examples: 

"This Day, those who do not believe have lost hope, (due 
to the success) of your religion." (5:3) 

"Those have lost hope of My mercy." (29:23) 



"And for those of your women who have passed the age 
of menstruation." (65:4) 



139 15; Weak Verbs-I 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




140 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 16 




WEAK VERBS-II 
Hollow Verb - L£*St\ 



Verbs with a weak middle radical i.e. j or ^ are termed as hollow 
verbs. They come in place of & the middle radical. The middle 
letters j or & are replaced with alif, \ for easy pronunciation. 

They are of two types: 

i$$l S'J>h\: Here j comes in place of & the middle radical as 
jy and is changed to a long a///; an become Jll. 

Past tense conjugation of the verb Jls is as follows: 



$:,;■■,■■,■ 


Singular 


Dual 


.,■■ ,*?■■ ' 
Plural 


3 rd person masculine 


He said 


Nil 
They both said 


They all said 



141 



16; Weak Verbs-H 





*ning Arabic Languag 


eoftheQUR'AN 


<-Jl6 ctu£0 


ciJli 


isilS 


jB 


3 r person feminine 


She said 


They both said 


They all said 


<Jh\& jZ^> 


cJu3 


U£ii 


lilS 


2 nd person masculine 


You said 


You both said 


You all said 


<~-J»Us- eJj-a 


cJi 


u& 


3& 


2 n person feminine 


You said 


You both said 


You all said 


-JSw» 

First person 
(Masculine/Feminine) 


I said 


- 


We all said 


Some other verbs on the pattern o 


fJ\J are: 




Jli - To taste 






f^r - To become hungr 


y 




Sic- - To seek refuge 






l3U- — To fear 






Examples on the pattern 


l of j\5 : 







"/fe ^4//^ sa/J, 'O Adam! Inform them of the names of 
these (things).' "(2:33) 



142 



16; WeakVerbs-Il 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"They said, 'Glory be to Allah above all! We did not 
know (find) any evil on his part/" The Aziz's wife said... 
(12:51) 

"Before that (i.e. in the worldly life) they were well-off" 
(56:45) 

"Except those who repent and make amends." (2:160) 

"I certainly turn to You and I am certainly of those who 
submit (as Muslims)." (46:15) 



[^t^^j^JG^] 



"So they tasted the evil result of their conduct; and they 
had a grievous penalty." (64:5) 



••*>»•> i^ 



"Till you come to the graves." (102:2) 

Here t3li (<J^) deviates slightly from the pattern of J\S because 
the middle radical j has a kasrah (— ) on it. 

Past tense conjugation of *~iU- is as follows: 

143 16: WeakVerbs-II 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 





Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


3 r person masculine 


He feared 


They both 
feared 


They all 
feared 


3 r person feminine 


She feared 


They both 
feared 


They all 
feared 


2 n person masculine 


You feared 


You both 
feared 


You all 
feared 


2 n person feminine 




You feared 


You both 
feared 


5> * 

You all 
feared 


First person 
(Masculine/Feminine) 


I feared 


- 


Ilk 
We feared 



The second radical bears kasrah (— ), therefore the feminine 1 
third person plural becomes Cr^r- which has a kasrah (— ) on the j 
C- The remaining words will follow the same pattern with the 
kasrah (— ). 



144 



16: W<?«A Verbs-II 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Some other verbs with similar behavior are: 

£ tf - To sleep 
if - To be about to 
Examples on the pattern of lJU- : 

m \*>l ji L-«.«r uf >* <L£ <- **~ 0-*- 3 # 

"But Ae who fears from him who bequeaths, some unjust 
or sinful (clause);' (2:182) 

"But when you fear about him (that they may slaughter 
him) then cast him into the river." (28:7) 

And //ear my heirs after me." (19:5) 

A^ \' z '\ >&X 

"While they were more close to, not doing it. (2:71) 

Here 6U (o^i) and (o^i) is on the pattern of j\l and oVi 
respectively. Therefore, the third person feminine plural will be 
in both forms jL and jU and thereby the table will carry on 
forward with the kasrah (— ) and dammah (--) respectively. 

^ Oj^*r^ ^ ^^? vl/ 145 ^ ^ f 

145 16: WeakVerbs-II 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR' 



AN 



"What! When we die and become (part of the) soil and 
bones, will we (then) be raised." (37:16) 

"And whether vow die or you are slain, (in any case) you 
will be gathered towards Allah." (3:158) 

"She said, 'I wish I had died before this.'" (19:23) 



"Those who did not believe and died while they were 
infidels." (2:161) 

JU1 ii}A Here ^ comes in place of t, the middle radical as 
in g and is changed to a long alif, and becomes ^ . 

Some other verbs on the pattern of M; are: 

oU - To pass the night 

JL1 - To move 

£jj - To turn aside 
Past tense conjugation of ^U is as follows: 

146 16; WeakVerbs-II 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



•. 



3jJL4 






3 rd person masculine 



He sold 



They both sold 



They all sold 



3 rd person feminine 



She sold 



They both sold 






They all sold 



cJpl^-^Sjua 



>nd 



2 person masculine 



You sold 



You both sold 



You all sold 



v-J^ls- <tSy 



^nd 



2 person feminine 



You sold 



You both sold 



You all sold 



First person 
(Masculine/Feminine) 



Isold 



\5L 
We sold 



Examples on the pattern of P- IS : 

"Then from among them is he who says, 'Which of you 
has this (chapter of the Qur'an) increased in belief?'" 
(9:124) 



147 



16; WeakVerbs-II 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"And when //zev come to you, they greet you with (a 
greeting) with which Allah does not greet you." (58:8) 

"They (her people) said, c O Maryam! You have come 
with a strange thing.'" (1 9:27) 

AS-i <^=>- L4JU y^=t3 & 
"And eat from it freely from wherever you like." (2:58) 



"They were young men (who) believed in their Fosterer, 
and ffe increased them in guidance/' (18:13) 



* [<\<*T- y 



"So when they deviated from the right, Allah (also) 
deviated their hearts from the right." (61:5) 

4 &A* 2^*1* ^>W? J*r^ L^lr* t^ 2 ^ H* w 

"Then when Musa fulfilled the term and was traveling 
by night with his family." (28:29) 



148 16; Weak Verbs-U 



\ 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 1 7 




WEAK VERBS -III 



aftkVlt <Jl^Sn 



Defective Verb -^aSliji 



Verbs with a weak final radical are called defective. Here j or s 
comes in place of J, the final radical in the root Jii. They are of 
two types: 

Here j comes in the place of last radical J and is written with an 
alif, like in j£3 ^ Ico - to pray/to call 

The past tense conjugation of Ico is as follows: 



3 r person masculine 



Singular 



He called 



Dual 



They both called 



Plural 



They all called 



149 



17; Wea* Verbs! II 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



3 rd person feminine 


She 
called 


They both 
called 


6j" 

They all 
called 


2 nd person masculine 


You 
called 


You both 
called 


You all 
called 


2 n person feminine 


o>3 

You 

called 


You both 
called 


You all 
called 


First person 
(Masculine/Femin i ne) 


> ^ - 

j I called 


- 


We called 



Some other verbs on the pattern of Ico are: 

U-j ~ To hope 
Hi - To be hard 
*>U - To recite 
Examples on the pattern of ico: 






"7%ey both pray to Allah their Fosterer." (7: 1 89) 



150 



17; Weak Verbs-Ill 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"He said, 'My Fosterer! / invited my people (towards 
You) night and day.'" (71:5) 

"This was the procedure of Allah which has passed 
among His servants (in earlier generations too)." 
(40:85) 

"Then We pardoned yon even after that.' (2:52) 

"Then your hearts hardened even after that." (2:74) 

"But when alone, some of them say to otners." (2:76) 

"(That was) Allah's procedure with those who passed 
away earlier." (33:38) 

^Ql^llill: 

Here <s comes in the place of last radical J. 
ijj - To throw/blame 

151 '7 ■; Weak Verbs-Ill 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



The past tense conjugation of Jj is as follows: 



3' person m; sculine 



Singular 



L9^ 

Dual 



Slfc^ 



y* 



3 rc person feminine 



^i>l£. < 



J^o 



2 n person masculine 



L-Jfl.1^- ^ 



>nd 



2 person feminine 



First person 
(Masculine/Feminine) 



He threw 



She threw 






You threw 



You threw 



^3 



Plural 



] yj 



They both threw They all threw 



They both threw 



They both threw 



You both threw 



threw 



They all threw 



>0^, 

You all threw 



You all threw 



We threw 



Some verbs on the pattern of Jj are: 
,JL1 - x) run/ strive 
JJ - :o refuse 
<j\ ~ o come 



152 



17; Weak Verbs-Ill 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Examples on the pattern ofjy. 

'They said: 'We hear, and we disobey.'* (2:93) 
^ jlX jL> CJ£S\ \_y_y ^j5\ cZS\ IjSj '■;-,- 

"And even if you come with all signs, t > those who have 
been given the book." (2:145) 

^ \y& ^& ^>\ lirj 4g \y^> ~$J *U>\ L^i 

"Whenever it shines on them they walk therein, and 
when it darkens over them they stand still." (2:20) 

"And restrained himself from evil desiro." (79:40) 



'That was because //z<?v disobeyed and tiiey exceeded the 
limits." (5:78) 

"Go to Fira'wn, he has certainly rebelled" (20:24) 

4 z ^ Jb ^.J^ i> J i }a ! ^l\ (^y t ]^a3 lllfi^ 

"Then when Musa fulfilled the term and was traveling by 
night with his family." (28:29) 



i^ifc^Jbl^s 



153 17; Jf^A Verbs III 



=== ^^^^—s Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 
"And when He decrees an affair." (2:1 17) 

"Say, I fear the punishment of the Great Day, if 7 ofao% 
my Fosterer.'" (6:1.5) 

In ^ the second radical bears kasrah (— ) and therefore we 
observe a change in the pattern as compared to the base pattern 
J j in which the second radical bears fatha (jL). 

Past tense conjugation of ^ is as follows: 





Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


3 r person masculine 


He met 


They both met 


They all met 


3 rd person feminine 


She met 


They both met 


6^ 

They all met 


2 n person masculine 


You met 


You both met 


You all met 


2 nd person feminine 


You met 


LJuill 
You both met 


You all met 


First person 
(Masculine/Feminine) 


I met 


- 


We met 



154 



17; Weak Verbs-Ill 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Some other verbs which are on the pattern of^jJ are: 

(cffj - To be pleased 

{£*■ - To fear 

<j~i - To forget 
Examples on the pattern of ^J: 

"And when they meet those who believe." (2:14) 

"When you meet those who do not believe, marching 
(against you) for war." (8:15) 

"So when they reached the junction between the two 
(seas), they both forgot their fish." (18:61) 

"This is your god, and the god of Moses, but heforgotl" 
(20:88) 

"This day I have perfected your religion for you and 
completed My favor on you and I have chosen Al-lslam 
as the religion for you." (5:3) 

155 17; Weak Verbs-IH 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



/ >i- - . c *"* ",tT >*-' t > " *>*"" >-?^ . < v 

^ ,Ajj ^1*. J^J <£U> J££, \y^>jj rt-^C 4ii» (^3; p 

"Allah /s pleased with them and //*ey are pleased with 
Him. That is for him who fears his Fosterer." (98:8) 

Here ^\j is a hamzated weak verb as \ comes in place of (^ in 
the middle radical and <j; in the place of J in the final radical, it 
however follows the pattern of Jj . 

i- 

Past iense conjugation of ^\j is as follows: 





Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


3 rd person masculine 


He saw 


They both 
saw 


They all saw 


3 !d person feminine 


4 

She saw 


They both 
saw 


<3& 

They all saw 


2 nd person masculine 


You saw 


You both saw 


You all saw 


2 n person feminine 


You saw 


You both saw 


You all saw 


First person 
( Masculine/Feminine) 


Co' i\ 

I saw 


- 


We saw 



156 



17; JfVtfA: Verbs-Ill 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Examples on the pattern of ^j. 

"He (Musa) said, 'O Harun! What prevented you, when 
you saw them going astray?"' (20:92) 

"Did you see him who belies religion?" (107:1) 

"Say, 'Do you see, if this is from Allah and you do not 
believe in it.'" (46:10) 



157 17; Weak Verbs-Ill 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




158 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 18 




DOUBLY WEAK VERB 

In English cJaliill means tangled or complicated. In this chapter we 
will deal with verbs that have more than one weak letter (^Lji <-J>j£) 
in their formation. 

Verbs with the first and third radicals as weak letters - 

They follow the same pattern as the defective verb (Jj). For 
example: 

jj - to save 
The past tense conjugation of Ji} is as follows: 



' ■ ' ' ' ■ 


Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


3 r person masculine 


He saved 


U5j 

They both 
saved 


They all saved 



159 



18: Z)o«A/j JfeaA Ferfc 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Sic- eJ 



\\A 



>rd 



3 person ieminine 



t_J^li£ 5j 



Xa 



2 na person masculine 



■>nd 



person iemmine 



JSoL 

First person 
(Masculine/Feminine) 



CU3j 

She saved 



You saved 



You saved 



I saved 



They both 
saved 



You both 
saved 



You both 
saved 



6^3 



They all saved 



You all saved 



You all saved 



We saved 



Some verbs on the pattern of jj are: 

jj To fulfill 

<3j - To become weak/lose strength 

(J-j T° keep in mind/retain 

Verbs with the second and third radicals as weak 
letters - Oj^-Stl <^laill 

They follow the same pattern as the defective verb jsl For 
example: 

(^>- - To live 

{$_£ - To become strong/powerful 



160 



18; Doubly Weak Verbs 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Past tense conjugation of ^>- is as follows: 



3 rd person masculine 



Singular 



He lived 



Dual 



They >oth 
lived 



Plural 



fhey all 
lived 



3 rd person feminine 



She lived 



They ooth 
livid 



They all 
lived 



<^l>te- JL* 



2 person masculine 



You lived 



You both 
lived 



You all 
lived 



t— JpI£- C-o 



>>* 



^nd 



2 n person feminine 



You lived 



You both 
lived 



You all 
lived 



First person 
(Masculine/Feminine) 



I lived 



We lived 



161 



1 3; Doubly Weak Verbs 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




162 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 19 




THE DOUBLE LETTERED VERB 



uo^lifrotl 



In some verbs the second and third radical arc identical. In such 
cases the second radical will have shaddah (JL) on it and hence 
it will be pronounced twice. 

Example: 

j£ (o-0- J?) - to think/to suspect 

Some grammarians categorize double lettered verbs as tri-literal 
and some as bi-literal. 

Past tense conjugation of ^ is as follows: 



■;">'•• : • ' ''■-:■■*'■■" -.'i-'A v : - : '-i\ '■-■'. ■ 


Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


3 rd person masculine 


0* 

He 

thought 


They both 
thought 


They all 
thought 



163 



19: Double-Lettered Words 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



3 r person feminine 


She 
thought 


They both 
thought 


They all 
thought 


2 n person masculine 


You 
thought 


1, ■o_7_V_\jp 

You both 
thought 


You all 
thought 


2 nd person feminine 


You 
thought 


You both 
thought 


You all 
thought 


First person 
(Masculine/Fern inine) 


I thought 


- 


We thought 



In the third person feminine plural the shaddah (. 
and the letters will be written individually. In 
table this pattern is carried forward. 

Some words on the pattern of jiS are: 

11 - To strengthen 

y> — To p.ISS 

Ji -To run away 
Examples: 



^~) is removed 
the remaining 






164 



19; Double-Lettered Words 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"Nothing indicated his death to then, except a moving 
creature of the earth." (34:14) 

"[ will not follow your desires, (and in case I did) then 
indeed / would go astray and I would not be of those 
who are guided." (6:56) 

"Those who do not believe and turn away (people) from 
the way of Allah." (4:167) 

"So whoever is on a pilgrimage (Majj) to the house 
(Ka'bah) or pays a visit (Umrah)." (2: 158) 

"And that which she worshipped besides Allah, had 
hindered her (earlier)." (27:43) 

"And we thought that mankind and jinn never speak a lie 
against Allah." (72:5) 






"And f/*ey f>ooj thought as _yow thought that Allah will 
never raise anyone (to life after death »." (72:7) 

1 65 19; Double-Lettered Words 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 






"May the hands of Abu Lahab perish. And may he perish" 
(111:1) 



-v >^ •.-*• "^ Z ii *s f 



"(Such) harm and happiness did afflict our forefathers 
(too)." (7:95) 

^ MJL. ^> ^ Lip Jo Jj ul^=3 J_, ,o> a^ bi*S tUi ^ 

"But when We remove from him that which harmed 
him, he passes on as if he had not prayed to Us for the 
harm that had afflicted him." (10:12) 

^ ^ C^-i U-j-ki. *^U^ cJu*- l^wtJj UU & 

"So when he covers her she bears a light burden and 
moves about with it." (7: 1 89) 

"So when the night covered him he saw a planet." (6:76) 

^ J- 9 <>^ -^> pp-yg.va3 OS >^ JJ ^ 

"And messengers about whom We did mention to you 
earlier." (4: 1 64) 



1 66 1 9; Double-Lettered Words 



Learning Arabic Language of the GUR'AN 




Chapter 20 




VERBS WITH FIXED PREPOSITIONS 



Some verbs are found with prepositions attached to their object. 

Verbs with such prepositions sometimes convey different meanings. 

For example: 

J£ means "to judge", "to fulfil!", "to decree" but when 
it comes with the preposition J^ it means "to bring to an 
end", "to kill". 

"And when He decrees an affair, then He says to it only, 
'Be,' so it is." (2:1 17) 

"So Musa struck him with his fist thus killing him." (28: 15) 
i^i means "to bear witness", "to be present". When it comes with 
jf it means "to bear witness against7"give testimony against". 



167 



20; Fixed Prepositions 



^=— =^=^— =*=^=^^^= Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 

^p 4.»-* F ^ «, lfl ^-yJj 1 r^-^* -W~*J (V»-9 afe 

"So whoever among you is present in the month of 
(Ramadan), let him then fast." (2:185) 

"They will s »y, #fe hear witness against ourselves,"' (6:130) 

4^ with or witho* t J means "to repent" but when it conies 
with jp it means, " o accept repentance"/"to forgive". 

"But whoever repents after his injustice." (5:39) 

"Then Allan vv/77 /wrw to him (mercifully). " (5:39) 

When ;li- comes without any preposition it means "to come". 
However, when it is used with the preposition ^ it means, "to 
get"/"to bring". 

"So when he came to him and narrated (his) narrative." 

(28:25) 

"Say, 'Who (then) sent down the book with which Musa 
had cornel"* (6:91) 

1 68 20: F/x^rf Prepositions 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



The following table shows verbs with fixed prepositions; 



Verb with meaning 


Preposition 


Meaning with 
Preposition 


He said, to speak, to 
inspire, to indicate 


j 


He said, to speak, to 
inspire, to indicate 


To give as a gift, to grant, 
to bestow on, dedicate 


j 


To give as a gift, to 

grant, to bestow on, 

dedicate 


'J* 
To cover, veil 


j 


To forgive, pardon 


To realize or acknowledge 

one's favour, to thank, be 

grateful 


j 


To realize or 

acknowledge one's 

favor, to thank, be 

grateful 


To prostrate, to be 
submissive 


j 


To prostrate, to be 
submissive 


To bear, perceive, 

respond, listen, allow, 

give permission 


a 


To bear, perceive, 

respond, listen, allow, 

give permission 


Be witness, be present 


j 


Be witness, be present 


jp 


To bear witness, give 
testimony against 



169 



20; Fixed Prepositions 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



To pass over, to forgo 


^ 


To forgive, to pardon 


-* 

s - 


To abound 


To remove 


& 


To pull away, to 

remove, take off, to 

open up, lay open, to 

bare 


To forbid 


& 


To prevent, forbid, 
prohibit, restrain 


> 

Err, wasted, go astray, 
forgets 


& 


To stray, disappear, 
gone away, failed 


To follow 


& 


To recite 


To pass, move, pass on 


& 


To pass on , by 


c-> 


To pass with, carry 


Indicated, showed, 

pointed at, guided, 

discovered 


£ 


To indicate, point, 
show, guide, discover 


To fulfill, to judge, 
decide 


£ 


To bring to an end, 
i.e. to kill 



170 



20; Fixed Prepositions 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



To communicate, narrate 

(a story), to follow one's 

track 


& 


To communicate, 
narrate (a story), to 
follow one's track 


J" 

To enter 


& 


To enter 


To happen, to take place 


& 


To show, to set 

before, propound a 

matter. 


j 


To offer, to present 


To seek forgiveness, to 
repent 


Ji 


To seek forgiveness, 
to repent 


* 


To accept repentance, 
to forgive 


To reach a place, to 

arrive at, to seek 

friendship, to reconcile 


Ji 


To agree, to make up, 

to reconcile, to arrive 

at, to reach a place. 


To appear, rise, 
to ascend 


J£/Jp 


To depart from 



171 



20: Fixed Prepositions 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



To be pleased, satisfied, 
content, chosen, prefer 




To be pleased 


He came 


<~> 


He brought, he got 


3 

He came, arrived 


<-> 


He brought, he got, he 
gave 


To interest, regard, 
concern, worry, cure 


<—> 


To have in mind, 
intend, desire 


To come out 


t_j 


To come out, produce 


To command 


^j> 


To command 


To seek protection, 
take refuge 


C-3 


To seek protection, 
take refuge 


To be ungrateful, 
negligent, thankless 


*_-> 


To hide, to refuse, to 

deny, reject. To 

disbelieve, denied 

ungratefully 

— 



172 



20; Fixed Prepositions 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



He went, is gone 


l_j 


look away 


■" 


Is gone away, departed 


To long 


U 


To desire, long for 


c£ 


To have no desire, 
i o be averse 


Ji 


To supplicate 


V>^ 


To prefer(one thing 
over another) 


Settled, incurred, earned 


JI 


To come back to, 
to return 


V 


To bring, lead back, 
to bear 


To seek, wish for, 
desire, oppress 


Jp 


To be unjust, 
to oppress 


To strike, to beat 




With Stei : to coin a 

similitude, give a 
parable, set an example 



173 



20: Fixed Prepositions 



=^=— ^=^=« Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 
Examples: 

"When his Fosterer said to him (Ibrahim), 'Submit.' He 
replied, '[ submit before the Fosterer of the worlds.'" 
(2:131) 

"And gra«/ ws mercy from Thine Own Presence; for 
Thou art the Grantor of bounties without measure." (3:8) 

"He said, 'My fosterer! I have been unjust to myself so 
protectively forgive me." So He protectively forgave 
him." (28:16) 

^ q>U-*j 2y& Uj f»4^>i? (*££!> f^^ 1 (*f^ -V^ fJj$* 

"The Day their tongues and their hands and their feet 
will bear witness against them as to that which they used 
to do." (24:24) 

"But when We remove from him that which harmed 
him." (10:12) 

1 74 20; Fare J Prepositions 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"Then We bring out through it fruits of every kind." 

(7:57) 

"And enjoin that which is recognized (as good) and 
forbid that which is not recognized (as good)." (3:114) 

"And that which they had fabricated will go away from 
them." (6:24) 

"Or (did you not consider one) like him who passed 
over a town which had fallen down on its roofs." (2:259) 

tm *.** <Zjj+± * j 4-£*' y^*->~ CUL**- y 

"She bears a light burden and moves about with iV 
(7:189) 



"So when he came to him and narrated (his) narrative." 

(28:25) 

"And He taught Adam all names; then He presented 
them (things) before the angels." (2:3 1 ) 

175 20 ; Fixed Prepositions 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"Allah will be pleased with them and they will be 
pleased with Him, that's the great achievement." (5:119) 

"Allah took away their light and left them in darkness 
(so that) they do not see." (2:17) 

"Then s/ze came to her people carrying him (Isa)." 
(19:27) 



1 76 20; Fixed Prepositions 



\ 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 21 




THE IMPERFECT TENSE-1 

Consonant Verbs - aVj^iMi JI*£V1 



The imperfect tense denotes both present and future tense in 
which an action is unfinished. 

The conjugation of the imperfect tense is made by adding 
prefixes and suffixes to the past tense. 

Example: 

JJuL - He does or he will do. 
The imperfect tense conjugation of JJLi: JSLL is as follows: 





Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


3 r person masculine 


He does/ 
will do 


They both 
do/ will do 


They all do/ 
will do 



177 



21; 77i^ Imperfect Tense-I 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



3 r person feminine 


She does/ 
will do 


They both 
do/ will do 


They all do/ 
will do 


2 nd person masculine 


You do/ will 
do 


You both 
do/ will do 


You all do/ 
will do 


2 nd person feminine 


You do/ will 
do 


You both 
do/ will do 


You all do/ 
will do 


First person 
(Masculine/Femin me) 


I do/ will do 


- 


We do/ 
will do 



♦ The prefixes are ^ , o, i , j. These are also called the signs of 

♦ The suffixes are fc 'gl-l." for duals, "0j— " for masculine plurals, 
'o for feminine plurals and "jj-j!" for the second person 
feminine singular. There are no suffixes for the first person. 

♦ The first radical of past tense i.e. 'l3' will bear sukoon (_!_) 
on it. 

♦ The second radical '£/ in the imperfect tense may bear fatha 
(—), kasrah (— ) or dammah (-£.). 

If the verb is on the pattern of Jii, i.e. second radical '£/ bears a 
^/a/Afl ( —). Then the second radical of the ^jUh/Jl can bear: 



178 



21; 77r£ Imperfect Tense-I 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



a) Fatha ( —). For example: 



Past tense verb 




He opened 


He opens/ will open 


He made 


He makes/ will make 


He wiped 


He wipes/ will wipe 





b) Kasrah {-—). For example: 



Past tense 



He hit 



He earned 



He recognized 



Imperfect tenseve 



He hits/will hit 



C_^^=U 



He earns/will earn 



He recognizes/will 
recognize 



179 



21 ; 77re Imperfect Tense-I 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



c) Dammah (™L). lor example: 



Past tense verb 


Imperfect tense verb 


He helped 


He helps/will help 


He left 


He leaves/ will leave 


He ascended 


He ascends/ will ascend 



If the verb is on the pattern of J*S i.e. if the second radical '£' 
bears kasrah ( — ) then the second radical of the imperfect tense 
^jUkUl can bear jatha (—), kasrah (— ) 

Examples: 

a) Fa//?a (_L) 



Past tense verb 


Imperfect tense verb 


He listened 


He listens/will listen 


He drank 


He drinks/ will drink 


He knew 


He knows/ will know 



180 



21/ The Imperfect Tense-I 



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b) Kasrah ( — ) 



Past tense verb 


Imperfect tense verb 


He thought 


He thinks/ w 11 think 



Verbs of the pattern of J*l will never bear dammah (_L) on the 
second radical (Q in the imperfect tense. 

If the verb is on the pattern of JAi i.e. if the second radical bears 
dammah (_!.) then the second radical of the imperfect tense 
(^jUkUl) will always bear dammah (_JL). For example: 



Past tense verb 


Imperfect tense verb 


- 9- ^ 

He kept away 


Mo" 

He keeps away/will 
keep aw ay 


He became good 


He becomes good/will 
become good 


He approached 


He approaches/ will 
approach 



181 



21: 77r£ Imperfect Tense- f 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Examples of the imperfect tense: 

"And Allah does what He wills." (14:27) 



"Those who fulfill the agreement with Allah and do not 
break the pledge." (13:20) 

"Dressed in fine and thick silk, facing each other." (44:53) 

"And Dawood and Sulaiman, when they both gave 
judgment concerning the field when the people's sheep 
pastured therein by night." (21:78) 

"And it is not lawful for them to hide that which Allah 
has created in their wombs." (2:228) 

"Do not shed blood (among) yourselves and do not drive 
out your people from your houses." (2:84) 

182 2 1 ; T/ie Imperfect Tense-I 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Note: 



"He (Allah) replied, 'I know that which you do not know." 
(2:30) 



"We can afflict them (too), for their sins, and set a seal 
on their hearts so that they would not he able to hear." 
(7:100) 

"Then Allah sent a crow scratching the earth." (5:31) 

# j^p-vyo «.Uxj^1 oy&uj w v^^ojy^* li>& r^V^-Ml- 5 ^ 

"That was because they used to reject the signs of Allah 
and kill the prophets without having the right to do so." 
(3:112) 



When the imperfect tense (£jUkUl) is preceded by '^' 
or 'l^' (very soon/shortly), they give the meaning of 
future tense to the imperfect tense. '^' or 6 <J^Jl' are 
called the particles of future (JllliL^fl lJjj>). 
Examples: 



>7"<t*1 A >-" 



"The foolish among the people will say." (2:142) 

183 21; J/m? Imperfect Tense-I 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR7VN 



"Never, you will come to know." (102:3) 
"Again, never, you will come to know." (102:4) 



1 84 21 ; The Imperfect Tense-I 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 22 




THE IMPERFECT TENSE - II 
Hamzated Verbs -j>^JLJ cjliwi 



When hamza, M' is used as the first radical as i-i J5l: <pU, there 
will be no change in the conjugation and \ will follow the 
pattern of JiS: Jill 

The imperfect tense conjugation of jS 1: J5 U is as follows: 





Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


3 rd person masculine 


He eats/ 
will eat 


They bo h 
eat/will cat 


They all 
eat/ will eat 


3 r person feminine 


She eats/ 
will eat 


They both 
eat/ will cat 


They all 
eat/ will eat 



185 



22; 77/*' Imperfect Tense-II 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



2 nd person masculi ie 


You eat/ 
will eat 


You both 
eat/ will eat 


You all eat/ 
will eat 


L-Jsl^- Coy 

2 nd person feminii e 


You eat/ 
will eat 


You both 
eat/ will eat 


You all 
eat/will eat 


fJScu 

First person 
(Masculine/Feminine) 


1 eat/will 
eat 


- 


We eat/ will 
eat 



Examples: 



p-ttU 



-Ll^iU <^1>j^— *u ^dl^J • -^^_^x-^j ^ 



"And slay those w/zo enjoin justice from among 
human beings." (3:21) 

/ *£ -a* • -r > -'t\'"' '*&& \' &\"\'\ 

"And I inform you of that which you eat and that 
which you store in your houses." (3:49) 

When hamza, M' is used as the second radical as in Jil : JL1S 

there will be no change in the conjugation and it will follow the 

-- ^ -- ^ ^ ° - 
pattern of Jii: Jiib. 



186 



22; The Imperfect Tense-II 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



The imperfect tense conjugation of Jll: JLLS is as follows: 



Si 



lar 



Dual 



Ptoi 



3 rd person masculine 



JUS 

He asks/ 
will ask 



They both 
ask/will ask 



OjlLlS 

They all 
ask/will ask 



Sit 



c-03^ 



3 r person feminine 



jUo 

She asks/ 
will ask 



They both 
ask/will ask 



5^ 

They all 

ask/will ask 



<Jb\2- ]>j^ 



>nd 



2 person masculine 



JLl5 

You ask/ 
will ask 



You both 
ask/will ask 



5j)Ll3 

You all ask/ 
will ask 



^Us- eJj» 



->nd 



2 person feminine 



O^LLS 

You ask/ 
will ask 



gNLli 

You both 
ask/ will ask 



j]U3 

You all ask/ 
will ask 



First person 
(Masculine/Feminine) 



JU.I 

I ask/will 
ask 



jui 

We ask/ 
will ask 



Examples: 

"And they ask you about the Spirit (Ruh)." (17:85) 

1 87 22: 77te Imperfect Tense-II 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"And they ire not tired." (41 :38) 

When hamza, T is used as the third radical as in \y".\yu , there 
will be no change in the conjugation and it will also follow the 
pattern of Jii: J*ij. 

ft - p o ■* 

The imperfect tens-^ conjugation of V/:V^ xs as follows: 





Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


l_jIc ^p. 1* 
3 rd person mascuine 


9 

He reads/ 
will read 


C^yu 

They both 
read/will read 


They all 
read/will read 


3 ld person feminine 


She reads/ 
will read 


g&y£ 

They both 
read/will read 


They all 
read/will read 


L-ite. Jul* 
2 nd person masci line 


You read/ 
will read 


O^yl 

You both 
read/will read 


You all 
read/will read 


2 nd person femii ine 


You read/ 
will read 


g&y£ 

You both 
read/will read 


You all 
read/will read 


First person 
(Masculine/Feminine) 


9 

ft oft 

I read/will 
read 


- 


> 
\yu 

We read/ 
will read 



188 



22; 7Yi£ Imperfect Tense-II 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Examples: 

"Then ask those w/zo rra^/ the book (which was revealed) 
before you/' (10:94) 

"Allah begins the creation." (30: 1 1 ) 



189 22: 7%* Imperfect Tense-II 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




190 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 23 



Ik 

teT 



THE IMPERFECT TENSE-III 

Weak Verbs - sublet Jl^SU g^hVtt 

As we have dealt with, in the past tense, there are three types of weak 
verbs based on the positions taken by the weak letters (^ -j->) in 
the root word Jii. They are: 

♦ Assimilated verb - JliJI 

♦ Hollow verb lJ^NI 

♦ Defective verb - ^2aSVsJ\ 

Assimilated Verb - JILJI: 

In this kind of verb, the initial radical is weak i.e. j or ^. They 
come in the place of l3. The patterns will be according to the 
pattern Jii and there will be no change. 

i£j\jJ\ JULJI : Here j comes in place of cJ , the first radical, as 
can be seen in the following examples: 
Icj : j^j - to promise 



191 



23; The Imperfect Tense-III 



t_ii5j : 


9 __ 


- to stand 


j-*i ; 


^ ~ 


- to reach/arrive 


^Jua>j '. 


^J^i ~ 


- to describe/assert 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



The weak lette j is dropped in the formation of pjUaill. 
The Imperfect ense conjugation of i£j : 1*j is as follows: 





SjJLA 


iS** 


e 




Singular 


Dual 


Plural 




5 ^ 


O^^i 




oolc ^5-^ 


He 


They both 


They all 


3 rd person masculine 


promises/ 


promise/will 


promise/will 




will promise 


promise 


promise 




> -• 


gil*5 




< Jlc- *c^S ^ 


She 


They both 


They all 


3 rd person feminine 


promises/ 


promise/will 


promise/will 




will promise 


promise 


promise 


^Jplit JT:^ 


You 


You both 


You all 


2 nd person masculine 


promise/ 


promise/will 


promise/will 




will promise 


promise 


promise 


^J?l£- e^y 


You 


gll*j 
You both 


You all 


2 nd person feminine 


promise/ 


promise/will 


promise/will 




will promise 


promise 


promise 


JSoLa 


'jA 






First person 


I promise/ 


- 


We promise/ 


(Masculine/Feminine) 


will promise 




will promise 



192 



23: The Imperfect Tense-Ill 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Note 1: 



We usually observe that the sign on tl e second radical in 
the imperfect tense is kasrah (—). However, in some 
words the second radical may bear a fatha (—). 

To grant/confer 



^ju 






L&j : i^sj, - To place/deliver 
The imperfect tense conjugation of CSj : d4 > is as follows: 



3 1 



> r person masculine 



3 r person feminine 



Singular 



He gives/ 
will give 



> -£ 



Dual 



They both 
give/will give 



^nd 



person masculine 



She gives/ They boi h [ ney all 

will give give/will give give/will give 



^nd r • - 

I person feminine 



First person 
(Masculine/Feminine) 



? '$ 



You give/ 
will give 



6^ 

You give/ 
will give 



I give/will 
give 



0^ 



Plural 



f f *■' 



1 > — ' 

They all 
give/will give 



They all 



You both 
give/will give 



You both 
give/w ill give 



You all give/ 
will give 



You all give/ 
will give 



We give/ 
will give 



1 93 23; 77r<> Imperfect Tense-IU 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



.Vote 2: 



i he verb j^-J ls an exception to the pattern of Icj. Here the j is 
not dropped in the formation of the < Cj ] ^ a an d the conjugation 
folic ws the consonant pattern jjub and will thus be J>^. 

The mpertect tense conjugation of J^-) : Ji-jS is as follows: 



Singular 



Dual 



Plural 



ile/j 



Xa 



3 !C person masculine 



J^j5 
He fears/ 
will fear 



They both 
fear/ will fear 



They all 
fear/will fear 



3 Kl person feminine 



She fears/ 
will fear 



They both 
fear/will fear 



They all 
fear/will fear 



■>nd 



person masculine 



You fear/ 
will fear 



You both 
fear/ will fear 



You all fear/ 
will fear 



L-^-bl^- C-Oj^a 



>nd 



2 person feminine 



You fear/ 
will fear 



You both 
fear/will fear 



You all fear/ 
will fear 



First person 
(Masculine/Feminine) 



I fear/will 
fear 



We fear/ 
will fear 



194 



23: TYre Imperfect Tense-III 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



t$U\ JILJ1 : Here <j comes in place of Js> , the first radical. 
yj± : ^lli ~~ To become easy 
JJS : JJIj - To despair/lose hope 
J^ : Jj£* - To dry up 



The imperfect tense conjugation of y^ : _^1ju IS as 


follows: 


W^- : --^ : -\'-^ : ^^i^^. 






, ; v : pferil::::-:^ 


3 rd person masculine 


He loses 
hope/will 
lose hope 


They both 

lose hope/ 

will lose hope 


They all lose 
hope/will 
lose hope 


3 rd person feminine 


She loses 
hope/will 
lose hope 


They both 

lose hope/ 

will lose hope 


, £0- 

They all lose 
hope/will 
lose hope 


2 nd person masculine 


You lose 
hope/will 
lose hope 


You both lose 
hope/ will 
lose hope 


You all lose 
hope/ will 
lose hope 


2 nd person feminine 


You lose 
hope/ will 
lose hope 


You both lose 
hope/ will 
lose hope 


You all lose 
hope/will 
lose hope 


First person 
(Masculine/Feminine) 


I lose 
hope/will 
lose hope 


- 


We lose 
hope/will 
lose hope 



195 



23; The Imperfect Tense-Ill 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Hollow Verb - ^Jy>^\ : 

Verbs with a weak middle radical i.e. j or ^ are termed as 
hollow verbs. They come in place of '^' the middle radical. The 
middle letters j or ^ are replaced with alif, 'V for easy 
pronunciation. 

Hollow verbs arc of two types: 

1. t£jty\ <*J>y>-*i\: Here j comes in place of ^ the middle radical, 

as Jji and is changed to a long alif, and becomes JlS. 

Here the j comes back in the formation of the imperfect tense. 
The imperfect tense conjugation of JlS : J^iJ is as follows: 





Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


3 r person masculine 


He says/ 
will say 


They both 
say/will say 


They all 
say/will say 


3 r person femi line 


Jj^ 

She says/ 

will say 


o*y-> 

They both 
say/will say 


5^ 

They all say/ 
will say 


2 person 
masculine 


6y£ 

You say/ 
will say 


You both 
say/ will say 


You all say/ 
will say 



196 



23: 77i^ Imperfect Tense-IH 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



2 n person feminine 


3^.y£ 
You say/ 
will say 


You both 
say/will say 


3 4 

You all 

say/will say 


First person 
(Masculine/Feminine) 


I say/ will 
say 


- 


We say/ 
will say 



In the third person and second person feminine plural, the j is 
dropped and they will become {J*Ju and ^J& respectively. 

Exception: 

As mentioned earlier, l_>U- is an exception to the rule. 
Hence it will not follow the pattern of J IS ; J^. 

The imperfect tense conjugation of Jl>: ^JU^r is as follows: 





Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


3 r person masculine 


He fears/ 
will fear 


They both 
fear/will feai 


6y^ 

They all 
fear/will fear 


3 r person feminine 


She fears/ 
will fear 


They both 
fear/will fear 


They all 
fear/will fear 



197 



23: The Imperfect Tense-Ill 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



2 nd person masculine 


You fear/ 
will fear 


You both 
fear/will fear 


You all fear/ 
will fear 


2 nd person feminine 


You fear/ 
will fear 


You both 
fear/will fear 


You all fear/ 
will fear 


First person 
(Masculine/Feminine) 


I fear/ will 
fear 


- 


We fear/ 
will fear 



Here we see that in the second person and third person feminine 
plural, alif, is dropped and £ will bear fatha (jL) on it as in 

C& and Cr^- 

2. JU1 J^-Slh In this case, ,£ comes in place of f\ the middle 
radical, as ^ and is changed to a long a///, T as £U . In the 
past perfect tense the 'i£ ' is dropped. 

In the imperfect tense, c5 comes back except for third person and 
second person feminine plurals. 



198 



23: The Imperfect Tense-III 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



The imperfect tense conjugation of ^U : £^ is is follows: 





1 

; 

Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


3 r person masculine 


J? o ^ 

He sells/ 
will sell 


They boi i 
sell/will sell 


They all 
sell/will sell 


3 r person feminine 


She sells/ 
will sell 


They botii 
sell/will sell 


They all 
sell/will sell 


2 n person masculine 


} ^ 

You sell/ 
will sell 


You bot;i 
sell/will sell 


< ° •* ° £ 

You all 
sell/will sell 


2 nd person feminine 


You sell/ 
will sell 


You both 
sell/will sell 


You all 
sell/will sell 


First person 
(Masculine/Feminine) 


I sell/will 
sell 


- 


^ ° -r 

£? 

We sell/ 
will sell 



Note: *\JL will have the imperfect tense as iliS . 



199 



23; 77i£ Imperfect Tense-III 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Defective Verb —-Jask^V. 

Verbs withj in place of the final radical J, in the root JiS are 
called defective \ erbs. 

<Sj$\ o^^ : w ^ ere ' comes i n pl ace of the last radical <J. 

The j present ir th-:> spelling of lES (^ES) returns during the 
formation of the mperfect tense. 



The imperfect ter se conjugation of 


IcS :^Jo is as 


follows: 




Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


3 rd person masculine 


He calls/ 
will call 


They both 
call/will call 


- * « „ 

They all 
call/will call 


3 rd person feminine 


} o -- 

She calls/ 
will call 


They both 
call/will call 


They all 
call/will call 


C-JpI^- _p Joe 

2 n person masculine 


You call/ 
will call 


You both 
call/will call 


You all call/ 
will call 


2 n person feminine 


6^ 

You call/ 
will call 


You both 
call/will call 


gy^ 

You all call/ 
will call 


First person 
(Masculine/Feminine) 


I call/ will 
call 


- 


^ « - 

We call/will 
call 



200 



23; 77re Imperfect Tense-III 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Note: We see the 6 j' remains in the conjugation, in second 
person and third person feminine plurals. The thirc person masculine 
and feminine plurals are the same i.e O^c-Jo and the second person 
masculine and feminine plurals are the same i.e 5^-^ • 

JUI j^SUJl: iS comes in the place of last radical J. 

The imperfect tense conjugation of sjj ' Ci.ji is as follows: 





Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


3 r person masculine 


He throws/ 
will throw 


They botli 
throw/w ill throw 


oy>y 

They all throw 
/will throw 


3 r person feminine 


She throws/ 
will throw 


They both 
throw/w ill throw 


They all throw 
/will throw 


2 n person masculine 


You throw/ 
will throw 


You both throw/ 
will throw 


You all throw 
/will throw 


2 n person feminine 


You throw/ 
will throw 


You both throw/ 
will throw 


^•0 ^ 

You all throw 
/will throw 


First person 
(Masculine/Feminine) 


I throw/ 
will throw 


- 


We throw/ 
will throw 



Note: The second person feminine singular ynd plural are the 
same, Cx^y. 



201 



23; The Imperfect Tense-Ill 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



s c 

The imperfect tense conjugation of ^ji : JlJJ is as follows: 





Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


3 rd person masculine 




He meets/ 
will meet 


They both 
meet/will meet 


^0 

They all meet/ 
will meet 


3 rd person feminine 


J 5 

She meets/ 
will meet 


^ 

They both 
meet/will meet 


They all meet/ 
will meet 


2 n person masculine 


You meet/ 
will meet 


^ 

You both 
meet/will meet 


You all meet/ 
will meet 


2 n person feminine 


You meet/ 
will meet 




You both 
meet/will meet 


You all meet/ 
will meet 


First person 
(Masculine/Feminine) 


I meet/ 
will meet 


- 




We meet/ 
will meet 



The second radical bears kasrah (-7-) here and therefore we 
observe a change in the pattern as compared to the base pattern 
(Jj in which the second radical bears fatha (jl). 

Here we note that the second person feminine singular and 
plural is the same i.e 02-^ • 



202 



23; 7Yi£ Imperfect Tense-HI 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Note 



J^, $ and J6 fall into the pattern of Jj in the past 
tense conjugation. However, the imperfect tense conjugation 
is on the pattern of ^: JLil 
Examples: 

^1, : JlI4 - To run/strive 

Jl : (JU - To refuse 
J%5 : l ^1j - To forbid 
The imperfect tense conjugation of JL1 : Jul5 is as follows: 



Ipis 



Singular 



<_ o 



5\t Jj 



J^a 



3 rd person masculine 



Jlc 



LUJ-o 



3 rd person feminine 



He strives/ 
will strive 



2 nd person masculine 



lJ^I^- eJj^ 



->nd 



2 person feminine 



^ » 

She strives/ 
will strive 



Dual 



They both 
strive/will strive 



You strive/ 
will strive 



You strive/ 
will strive 



They both 
strive/will strive 



You both 
strive/will strive 



1 

Plural 



They all strive 
/will strive 



They all strive 
/will strive 










You both strive/ 
will strive 



You all strive/ 
will strive 



You all strive/ 
will strive 



203 



23: The Imperfect Tense-HI 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



First person 
(Masculine/Feminine) 



I strive/ 
will strive 



We strive/ 
will strive 



The imperfect tense conjugation of <j\j : ^ \^ / ^j^ is as follows: 





Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


3 r person masculine 


4 J 

He sees/ 
will see 


They both 
see/ will see 


They all see/ 
will see 


3 rd person feminine 


She sees/ 
will see 


They both 
see/ will see 


They all see/ 
will see 


2 n person masculine 


^7 
You see/ 
will see 


You both 
see/will see 


You all see/ 
will see 


2 nd person feminine 


OO 5 
You see/ 
will see 


You both 
see/will see 


o5> 

You all see/ 
will see 


First person 
(Masculine/Feminine) 


I see/ 
will see 


- 


6 J 
We see/will 

see 



There is an irregularity in the pattern of (£\y. & J>. 

204 23; The Imperfect Tense-Ill 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Examples: 

"And those who join that which Allah lias commanded 
to be joined." (13:21) 

"Nor do //zey tf^fop/ as //ze/r religion, the religion of truth 
(Islam)." (9:29) 



4j ^X^^^Iil^ ^itlr*^ 



"Who is the god other than Allah who cowW Ar/wg them 
(back) to you?" (6:46) 

"When they transgressed in (the matter of) the Sabbath." 
(7:163) 



0^-^J^^-^o\ J^^&k uGlsujS ^ 



"Why do you not come to us with the angels, if you are 
of the truthful ones?" (15:7) 

"And the day they did not keep the Sabbath, it (fish) did 
not come to them. Thus did We test them because they 
transgressed." (7:163) 

205 23: The Imperfect Tense-III 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



^SJ^i 4)it &$ by^o ^ 



"Say 7 sedfc fAe protection of the Fosterer of the day 
break.'" (113:1) 

"He will enter flaming fire." (1 1 1:3) 

"A messenger from Allah, reading clean pages." (98:2) 

"And as for him who comes to you striving hard." (80:8) 

"And he fears." (80:9) 



"And the Hell will be made manifest for him who sees." 
(79:36) 

206 23; TTie Imperfect Tense-III 



"Why do >>ow admonish a people whom Allah would | 
destroy." (7:164) 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"For them therein, there will be what they will for, and 
more from Us." (50:35) 

"So be patient over what they say, and glorify by praising 
your Fosterer." (50:39) 






f 



"The Day We will say to Hell, 'Are you filled?' And it 
will say, "Are there any more?'" (50:30) 



4 <-£% p^*-^ y^c^J 

"But (He involves you in such situations) that He may 
test some of you by means of others." (47:4) 



'Jgh\ its <£i ££J ii^i& ^ 4: 



"He grants females (daughters) to whom He wills and 
He grants males (sons) to whom He wills." (42:49) 



^ & &T* 2 **. k$rt ^^C^ifff o\j y 



o?*>. 



"And many of the partners certainly wrong one another." 

(38:24) 



207 22; The Imperfect Tense-I I I 



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208 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 24 




THE IMPERFECT TENSE - IV 



Doubly Weak Verb - . ftj/iltl JyMT £)ll^*Jl 



Here we will study the imperfect tense conjugation of verbs that 
have more than one weak verb (aJl*J\ <3jj^-0 in their formation. 

Verbs with the first and third radicals as weak letters follow the 
same pattern as the defective verb (Jj : &£). The j is dropped 
in the formation of the imperfect tense. 

Example: Jj : ^ - to save 
Imperfect tense conjugation of Jjj : ^l>: 





Singular 


*♦ *• « 
Dual 


Plural 


3 rd person masculine 


He saves/ 
will save 


They both 
save/will save 


They all 
save/will save 



209 



24; 77* ^ Imperfect Tense-IV 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



i\t 



o^La 



ird 



person feminine 



She saves/ 
will save 



vid 



person masculine 



2' 1 person feminine 



F irst person 
(Masculine/Feminine) 



You save/ 
will save 



They both 
save/will save 



They all 
save/will save 



You both 
save/will save 



6^ 

You save/ 
will save 



I save/ 
will save 



You both 
save/will save 



You all 
save/will save 



You all 
save/will save 



We save/ 
will save 



Verbs with the second and third radicals as weak letters follow 
the pattern of j£: Jiij 

Example: 





S&igular 


.■■.;■: dH:.: /. 
Dual 


[■■■■,■,& <-o 

Plural 


3 rd person masculine 


He lives/ 
will live 


o^4 

They both 
live/ will live 


They all 

live/ will 

live 



210 



24; 77fe Imperfect Tense-IV 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



3 rd person feminine 


She lives/ 
will live 


They both 
live/ will live 


6^ 

They all 
live/will live 


2 nd person masculine 


You live/ 
will live 


You both 
live/ will live 


6*£ 

You all live/ 

will live 


2 nd person feminine 


You live/ 
will live 


You both 
live/ will live 


6^- 

You all live/ 
will live 


First person 
(Masculine/Feminine) 


or* 

I live/ will 
live 


- 


We live/will 
live 



211 



24: 7Yi<? Imperfect Tense-IV 



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212 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 25 




THE IMPERFECT TENSE - V 

The Double Lettered Verbs ~ihrUh^\ jk^U ^llb^JI 



Verbs in which the second and third radicals are identical and bear a 
shaddah ( - ) on them, will be pronounced twice. For example: 

jJp : jiaj — To think/to suspect 
Imperfect tense conjugation of ^ : jjL : 





Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


3 person 
masculine 


He thinks/ 
will think 


They both think/ 
will think 


They all think/ 
will think 


3 person 
feminine 


She thinks/ 
will think 


They both think/ 
will think 


They all think/ 
will think 



213 



25: The Imperfect Tense- V 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



2 person 
masculine 


You think/ 
will think 


You both 
think/will think 


You all think/ 
will think 


2 nd person 
feminine 


You think/ 
will think 


You both think/ 
will think 


You all think/ 
will think 


First person 

(Masculine/ 

Feminine) 


I think/will 
think 


- 


We think/ will 
think 



Note: Usually there is a dammah ( .jl) on the second radical in 
the conjugation of the imperfect tense. For example: 

jl£ : j^o - To strengthen 

J-* . ^^o — To pass 



To touch 






- To make happy 

- To favor/gift 
J& - To lighten 

li : l^j — To intend 

Sometimes the second radical may bear kasrah (— ) oxfatha (jl). 
Here are some examples: 

^i : ^ — To run away/escape 



214 



25: 77r^ Imperfect Tense-V 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



j> : y& — To stay permanently/dwell in 
JS : yu - To be cool 
Examples from the Qur'an: 

"And those who deny Our signs, the punishment will 
afflict them because they used to transgress." (6:49) 

"They consider it their favor on you that the/ have accepted 
Islam." (49:17) 

"And they do nothing but guess." (2:78) 

id &*&%}& 

"A Day when man will rw>? away from his brother." 
(80:34) 



21 5 25; The Imperfect Tense- V 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




216 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 26 



PAST CONTINUOUS 




S is a helping verb meaning "was/were". Howe\ er, when it comes 
before the imperfect tense it will make it a past continuous verb. 

For example: 

Jiij jb - He was doing. 
Past continuous conjugation of JiiJ ^: 



5-U> 



3 r person masculine 



^ 



ujv C-o 



3 r person feminine 



Singular 



He was 
doing 



Jioj Cob 

She was 
doing 



C9^ 

Dual 



They boih 
were doing 



They both 
were doing 



Plural 



They all 
were doing 



They all 
w 7 ere doing 



217 



26; Pas/ Continuous 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



c-^jp \&- jj> J^ 
2 nd person mascu ine 


You were 

doing 


You both 
were doing 


■: o i " . ; * -''if 

You all 
were doing 


2 n person fern in ne 


You were 

doing 


You both 
were doing 


You all 
were doing 


First person 
(Masculine/Feminine; 


I was doing 


- 


We were 
doing 



The conjugation for ^2f is in the past tense though it is used 
along with the imperfect tense J«j. 

'That was because of their disobedience and they were 
the persons who exceeded the limits" (2:61) 



> >- 






O'Jf 



"And that you fast is better for you if you know." (2:184) 

^ ^M o^LJc \&=^ 



'They both used to eat food." (5:75) 



1 jlis O^b^li^ill 

"And We delivered him from the town which practiced 
bad things." (2 1:74) 

n J^J\ ±Z&>\ Xl la u J4*) jl *^li Li J] ly I5_j & 

"And they will say, 'Had we hut listened or understood, we would 
not have been among the inhabitants of blazing fire.'" (67:10) 



218 



26; Past Continuous 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 27 




MOODS OF THE IMPERFECT TENSE - 1 

The imperfect tense by slight changes may be in two forms. 

♦ The Subjunctive Mood - ^ y^c2\ £jUai!l. 

♦ The Jussive Moods - pj4^ £jUk«J\. 

When a particle such as $ (that) precedes the simple imperfect 
tense JiiJ (he does/ will do), it changes the case ending of the 
imperfect verb to fatha or nasab (_rL). The meaning differs from 
what it has in its absolute case. This is the subjunctive mood of 
the verb. For example: 

JiJu C)\ - That he does/ will do. 

Similarly, if a particle such as oi 00 precedes the simple imperfect 
tense JiiJ (he does/will do) it will change the case ending of the 
imperfect verb to sukoon or jazm (JL) and the meaning will differ 
from its absolute case. This is the jussive mood of the verb. 



219 27 Moods of the Imperfect Tense-I 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



^ o 5 

Jiij ol~ if he does/will do. 

These two forms of the imperfect tense, the subjunctive and 
jussive moods can be made by slight changes to the imperfect 
tense verb. 

The Subjunctive - cj^Lalqlt g^libiil 

The prefixed particles L*\Z1\ Jjjil change the mood of the 
imperfect tense to ihe subjunctive. They are listed below: 



; : i^pi^i Jj^ir ; 


Meaning 




will never 


3 ^ 


that/that not 




So that/so that not 


J^ 


Until 


J 


So that/in order to 


cp! 


Therefore/then 



220 27: Moods of the Imperfect Tense-I 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Below is a table demonstrating, the action of (C)\) on the imperfect 

tense (Jilj); 





Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


3 rd person masculine 


that he 
does/will do 


that they both 
do/ will do 


that they all 
do/ will do 


C^olc Cloys 

3 rd person feminine 


that she 
does/will do 


that they both 
do/ will do 


oJ ^ 

that they all 
do/ will do 


2 n person masculine 


J^5 o^ 

that you 
do/ will do 


that you both 
do/ will do 


that you all 
do/ will do 


2 nd person feminine 


that you 
do/ will do 


that you both 
do/ will do 


5^ ^ 

that you all 
do/ will do 


First person 
(Masculine/Feminine) 


that I do/ 
will do 


- 


that we do/ 
will do 



Points to note from the above table: 

Thefathah (jl) which is evident in the imperfect tense is seen 
only on the singular third person masculine and feminine, the 
singular second person masculine and on the first person singular 
and plural, i.e. Jiiu , JilS , jiii , jii: . For all other forms, the o 
of duals and plurals are dropped except in the feminine plurals. 

221 27 : Moods of the Imperfect Tense-I 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Examples of L^U\ t-^J-l found in the Qur'an. Example 'jV (that): 



"Nor should they themselves go out, unless they commit 
&Yvopeiamdece\\c^" (£5\V) 



s- 

As 'ouU' is feminine plural, the 'o' is not dropped. 

"It is most Yiate¥u\ to A\\aY\ that yow sa_y that which you 
do not do." (61:3) 

The 'j' is dropped from 'djy& ' due to the addition of 'jl'. 

♦ Jsf+S->^f - (that not): 
Example: 

"Z)o not fear nor gneve but receive the good news of the 
garden which you are promised". (41:30) 

♦ J + 6l->L)Sf - (for that): 
Example: 



"And I am commanded that I should be the first of those 
who submit (as Muslims)." (39:12) 

222 27 Moods of the Imperfect Tense-I 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



♦ jJ : It gives the meaning of will never and is a strong 
negation of the future. When ^J is prefixed to the ^UaJJl, it 
will indicate the future tense. For example: 

"Allah w/7/ never forgive them proteeth ely." (9:80) 

'Tow iv/7/ /7ever atom righteousness unless you spend 
from that which you love." (3:92) 

♦ J3 — In order to/so that: 

"That we may glorify You much." (20:33) 

♦ SoT- So that not/in order not to: 

For example: 

A *S^a £j£i \ t>. 'Aj* oy^i ^o h- 

"So that the (wealth) may not become an item of circulation 
(only) between the rich among you." (59:7) 

♦ Sil^J - So that not: 

"So that he does not know anything (even) after (having 
had) knowledge." (16:70) 

223 27 :Moods of the Imperfect Tense-I 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



♦ Ji -Until: 



"And io not go near them //// they are clean" (2:222) 



"(TM m o^?/v) //// //e separates the evil from the good." 
(3:175) 

♦ J -So that 



"And cast on you love from Me, to that you might be 
brougnt up before My eye." (20:39) 

♦ <J + ^!-> S& - So that not: 

"That >he owners of the book may know that they do not 
have control on anything from the grace of Allah." (57:29) 
Examples: 






"But if you do not do it, and you will never do it then be 
on your guard against the fire." (2:24) 

224 27 Moods of the Imperfect Teme-l 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"And we know that we can neither defeat Allah in the 
Earth nor can we defeat Him by flight/' (72:12) 

4 *\y*J ^i-^ ot ^ "•— ^*ri <1^ y 

"Allah will never raise & messenger aiier him." (40:34) 

"Say, Wo«e ca^? ever protect me against , vllah and / can 
never find besides Him, (any source of) re \ige.'" (72:22) 

"And we thought that mankir^ and the jnn never speak 
a lie against Allah." (72:5) 

"Least a soul should say, 'My regrets on being negligent 
towards Allah's side.'" (39:56) 

"Allah is certainly not ashamed to set forth the similitude 
of a fly or something above that." (2:26) 









"Allah commands you that you should certainly slaughter 
a cow." (2:67) 

225 27 :Moods of the Imperfect Tense-I 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"He conmands that you serve no one but Him Alone/' 
(12:40) 

"Do not fe----- nor grieve but receive the good news of the 
garden vhich you are promised/' (41:30) 






^*C ' '?,' ^\ *^ ^ Z ' ',„SSS^ 



'Thus Vv e returned you to your mother that her eye might 
he cook i and (that) she might not grieve." (20:40) 

"And do not go near them till they are clean" (2:222) 

"And the y will not enter the garden until the camel /azwes 
through he eye of the needle." (7:40) 



./ 



^^iy^ K.y^ ( *^irr* e ^ ^ _A*-J 



"77za/ A lah way separate the bad ones from the good 

ones." (8:37) 



\jj&if$ "J* tj££ ££& 



"77za/ //t- way c«f q^a portion from among those who 
did not believe." (3:127) 



226 27: Moods of the Imperfect Tense-I 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"That Allah may protect you from (every) sin of yours 
which you (could) send in advance and which you (could) 
leave behind." (48:2) 

"And We taught him the (art of) making coats of mail 
for you that they might protect you in your wars." (21:80) 

"And do not make Allah, because of your oaths, a 
hindrance in your righteousness and guarding (against 
evil) and effecting reconciliation between human being." 

(2:224) 

In the last example, we see that the conjunction y (<J&i}\ jlj) 
meaning "and" carries forward the effect of the "*1*?\^\ ^/J-\" 
Therefore, the following imperfect verbs joined by y will be 
affected in the same manner as the first verb and will be in the 
subjunctive form. 

When wlsH <->jjsU come before weak verbs (iiiilH JUiNl), 
hamzated verbs (s>L^ jlil V\) and doubled letters verbs ( jliiMt 
iiiLiill) we will observe the same changes as in the consonant 
verbs, therefore, they do not need to be dealt with separately. 



227 27 -Moods of the Imperfect Tense-I 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"He commands that you serve no one but Him Alone. 1 
(12:4() 



"Do n njc-tr nor grieve but receive the good news of the 
garder which you are promised." (41:30) 

"Thus We returned you to your mother that her eye might 
be cooled and (that) she might not grieve." (20:40) 

"And do not go near them till they are clean" (2:222) 

"And t.iey will not enter the garden until the camel passes 
through the eye of the needle." (7:40) 

"TTza/ Allah /way separate the bad ones from the good 
ones." ;8:37) 

"That He may cut off & portion from among those who 
did not believe." (3:127) 



226 27 :Moods of the Imperfect Tense-I 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"That Allah may protect you from (every) sin of yours 
which you (could) send in advance and which you (could) 
leave behind." (48:2) 

"And We taught him the (art of) making coats of mail 
for you that they might protect you in your wars." (21:80) 

"And do not make Allah, because of your oaths, a 
hindrance in your righteousness and guarding (against 
evil) and effecting reconciliation between human being." 

(2:224) 

In the last example, we see that the conjunction j' (U&^\ j\j) 
meaning "and" carries forward the effect of the "C^&l *-»jj^" 
Therefore, the following imperfect verbs joined by j' will be 
affected in the same manner as the first verb and will be in the 
subjunctive form. 

When v^lsJl ^J^ come before weak vcrbs (&*^ Jli^O, 
hamzated verbs (i* > £+$\ jlilSfi) and doubled letters verbs ( JulSfi 
iiiUhiSi) we will observe the same changes as in the consonant 
verbs, therefore, they do not need to be dealt with separately. 



227 27 Moods of the Imperfect Tense-I 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




228 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 28 




MOODS OF THE IMPERFECT TENSE - II 

„ > • " * * 

The Jussive - fjj£*Us\ %jUaUi\ 

The prefixed particles which are called i^j\^\ Sjj^\ change the 
mood of the imperfect tense to the jussive where the final radical 
takes a sukoon ovjazm {—). These are listed below: 



tjk\S/jA 


Meaning 


? 


Was not/did not 


tf 


Noi yet 


01 


Sf 


J 


Should 


H 


Do not/Should not 



229 28; Moods of the Imperfect Tense-II 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Table with JilJ &\' 





Singular 


. :*'£.. . 


Plural 


Dual 


3 rd person masculine 


J*^ oi 

If he does/ 
will do 


*>U-L oi 

If they both 
do/ will do 


l^iiij Oi 

If they all 
do/will do 


3 rd person feminine 


J*^ Oi 

If she does/ 
will do 


*%J& oi 

If they both 
do/ will do 


6**^ oi 

If they all 
do/will do 


2 nd person masculine 


J**5 oi 

If you do/ 
will do 


*>UIj oi 

If you both 
do/ will do 


\y^*ju oi 

If you all 
do/will do 


2 nd person feminine 


cW^oi 

If you do/ 
will do 


*>Uju oi 

If you both 
do/ will do 


cA*^ oi 

If you all 
do/will do 


First person 
(Masculine/Femini ne) 


If I do/will 
do 


- 


J^ oi 

If we do/ 
will do 



Points to note from the above table: 

The sukoon {—) which is evident in the imperfect is seen only 
on the singular third person and second person masculine and 
feminine and on the first person singular and plural, i.e. JiLJ , 
Jiis , J*i( and Jiaj. 

For all other forms, the 'o' of duals and plurals are dropped as 
in the subjunctive, except in the case of feminine plurals. 



230 28: Moods of the Imperfect Tense-II 



Learning Araoic Language of the QUR'AN 



li - was not/did not: It is used to deny a s.atement. It changes 
the present future tense to past tense. 






w 'We did not assign (this) name to any one before." ( 1 9:7) 
111 - not yet: 

"And (will do so to) others (too) fro n among those who 
have not yet joined them." (62: 3 ; 

"And belief /zos i7<9/>><?/ entered into your hearts." (49:14) 

In the above example, we see that ^ of ji-x> bears Aasra/? (-7-) 
on it (instead of sukoon (J_). The genera rule is that sukoon 
{—) is changed to kasrah (— ) to join the ft flowing letter. 

/Vote: When UJ is followed by the imperfect tense it gives the 
meaning of not yet. When it comes before tie past tense it means 
'when' without any effect on the harakah (-^--) of the past tense. 

"So when Talut departed with the forces". (2:249) 
0! : It is a conditional particle and gives the meaning of "if. It 
usually comes in the beginning of a conditional sentence and is 
followed by two imperfect verbs in the jussive case. 

231 28; Moods of the Imperfect Tense-H 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"If yoi help Allah, He will help you and make your feet 
firm." 47:7) 

"Ifyoi wanted a decision then the decision has come to 
you, ard if you desist then it will be better for you." (8:19) 

It can also come along with H. For example: 

01 + ^ -> ^ 
If+no:— » if not/unless 

"^wrf jf low <io /?ctf protectively forgive me and have 
mercy on me I will be of the losers." (1 1:47) 

J - should: It is also called "lam of command (J$\ ft)". We 
will deal with this in detail in the imperative form. 

\ -Oil 4-jU U* < y^ >*3jj &£>jJ& tfJ *&*** Ot **^»js JaIJ f 

"Let him who has abundance spend out of his abundance, 
and one who has his provision straitened on him, let him 
spend from that which Allah has given to him." (65:7) 

M : This is the particle of prohibition and is also called £jbl£Jl ^, 
It is used with the second person imperfect tense to give a 
negative command. 

232 28: Moods of the Imperfect Tense-H 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



> -. ->, >r. 



"And do not say for those who are slain in the way of 
Allah (that they are) dead." (2:154) 

"And do not make Allah, because of your oaths, a hindrance 

in your righteousness and guarding (against evil) and 

effecting reconciliation between human beings." (2:224) 

There is one more ^ named Xli\U\ Si, which is used for negation 

and means "no". This N will have no effect on the verb that 

follows it. It is just used as a statement. 

\ \ * * - -? > i / 

"Allah will not catch you for what is vain in your oaths." 

(2:225) 

"They cannot travel in the land." (2:273) 

"Allah does not task a soul but (to the extent of) that 
which He has given it." (65:7) 

"Say, c No one in the skies and the Earth knows the 
unseen except Allah.'" (27:65) 

233 28; Moods of the Imperfect Tense-ll 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



WEAK VERBS - Skdl jlii^ 



Assimilated verss on the pattern of lij and yJ± and hamzated 
verbs will change when prefixed with iij\i-\ ^j>>- with the 
same effect as that of the basic consonant pattern Jii. 

Hollow verbs on the pattern of JU and ^U will undergo the 
following change: 





Singular 


J** 
Dual 


e 

Plural 


t^olc Si.-* 

3 rd person masculine 


He did not 
say 


They both 
did not say 


They all did 
not say 


3 rd person feminine 


She did not 

say 


They both 
did not say 


They all did 
not say 


2 nd person masculine 


You did not 
say 


You both 
did not say 


i^i^ij 11 

You all did 
not say 


2 n person feminine 


You did not 
say 


You both 
did not say 


You all did 
not say 


First person 
(Masculine/Feminine) 


I did not say 


- 


We did not 
say 



234 28: Moods of the Imperfect Tense-I! 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Table for 



&? : 



.■_■_ — • ■ • ■". — - "~ — 

^stai||||i|p||||||S||i||i|ii||||||; ; 



3 rd person masculine 




He did not 
sell 



Dual 



They both 
did not sell 



Hill 

Plural 



inJ« -" 1 

They all did 
not sell 



3 rd person feminine 



if? 

She did not 
sell 



They both 
did not sell 



They all did 
not sell 



U^l^^S^ 



^nd 



2 person masculine 



erf 3 

You did not 
sell 



You both 
did not sell 



You all did 
not sell 



(_i>l2. £jy 



>nd 



2 person feminine 



° i M 

You did not 
sell 



You both 
did not sell 



You all did 
not sell 



First person 
(Masculine/Feminine) 



Cf? 

I did not sell 



We did not 
sell 



In the table above we see that j' and '^' are cropped in the third 
person masculine and feminine singular, second person masculine 
and first person singular and plural because the last letter is 
made sakin (—). Two sukoons cannot appear together, and 
therefore, the weak letter is dropped. The remaining pattern however 
will have the j' and the 6 ^' respectively in the conjugation. 



235 28: Moods of the Imperfect Tense-II 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Defective verbs on the pattern of \qS, Jj and r^J will have the 
following changes in their conjugation when prefixed with 

Table for ^ fi: 





Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


3 rd person masculine 


He did not 
call 


They both 
did not call 


to •» °- of 

They all 
did not call 


3 r person feminine 


She did not 
call 


They both 
did not call 


They all 
did not call 


2 n person masculine 


You did not 
call 


You both 
did not call 


You all did 
not call 


2 nd person feminine 


You did not 
call 


You both 
did not call 


You all did 
not call 


First person 
(Masculine/Feminine) 


I did not 
call 


- 


We did not 
call 



236 28; Moods of the Imperfect Tense-H 



= Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Table for tjt ^ • 



Singular 



Dual 



e 

Plural 



3 rd person masculine 



os of 

M ? 

He did not 
throw 



They both 
did not 

throw 



They all 
did not 
throw 



i\t 



i^>y> 



3 r person feminine 



She did not 
throw 



They both 
did not 
throw 



^ C T 

They all 
did not 
throw 



t-Jpl^-^Tjua 



■>nd 



2 n person masculine 



You did not 
throw 



You both 
did not 
throM 



You all did 
not throw 



<Jb\2- <t^y 



/ 2 n person feminine 



You did not 
throw 



Ho 



'S 



p 



You both 
did not 
throw 



You aJJ did 
not throw 



First person I did not 

(Masculine/Feminine) throw 



of <> / 

We did not 
throw 



237 28; Moods of the Imperfect Tense-H 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



,- 

Table for jJJ 1] 





Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


3 rd person masculine 


He did not 
meet 


They both 
did not meet 


They all did 
not meet 


3 rd person feminine 


^ 

She did 
not meet 


They both 
did not meet 


*■ 

They all did 
not meet 


2 nd person masculine 


You did 
not meet 


You both did 
not meet 


You all did 
not meet 


2 nd person feminine 


You did 
i not meet 


You both did 
1 not meet 


^0 s 

You all did 
i not meet 


First person 
(Masculine/Femin ine) 


I did not 
meet 


- 


s 

We did not 

meet 



In the hollow verbs, we see that j' and '^S' are dropped in the 
third person masculine and feminine singular, the second person 
masculine and in the first person singular and plural. The 
remaining pattern will have the j' and the '^s' respectively in 
the conjugation. 

Double lettered verb (iAgAia.111): The change in pattern is as 
follows: 



238 28; Moods of the Imperfect Tense-II 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Table of jj& : ^>1L ^ (when it is written separately): 





Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


3 r person masculine 


0^ fJ 

He did not 

think 


They both did 
not think 


\j* ft j IJ 

They all 

did not 

think 


3 r person feminine 


She did 
not think 


They both did 
not think 


(JrllL IJ 

They all 

did not 

think 


2 n person masculine 


You did 
not think 


You both did 
not think 


\y£5p 

You all did 
not think 


2 nd person feminine 


You did 
not think 


You both did 
not think 


You all did 
not think 


First person 
(Masculine/Feminine) 


I did not 
think 


- 


L >UL> 1] 

We did not 
think 



Here the shaddah (jL) is opened in the third person masculine 
and the feminine singular and in the second person singular and 
first person verbs. 



239 28; Moods of the Imperfect Tense-JI 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Examples: 

"But if you do not do it, then take notice of war from 
Allah and His Messenger; and if you repent (or go back 
to the affair of loan), then for you is the principal of your 
amount." (2:279) 

"But if you do not do it, and you will never do it, then be 
on your guard against the fire." (2:24) 

"While Allah has not yet known (marked out) those who 
strive (in H is way) from among you and known (marked 
out) those who are patient?" (3:142) 

"If a wound has afflicted you, then a similar wound has 
afflicted the (other) people." (3:140) 

"So if you turn back, then I have conveyed to you that 
with which I was sent to you." (1 1 :57) 

240 28; Moods of the Imperfect Tense-H 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"And they will call out, c O Malik (Angel incharge of 
Hell)! Let your Fosterer make an end of us.' He will say, 
'You certainly have to stay (here).'" (43:77) 

"But do not go near this tree, because you will become 
one of those who are unjust." (2:35) 

"You do not associate with Me anything (as partner), and 
clean My house for those who walk around (it)." (22: 26) 

"TTkjw <fo wo? raj (even), "Ujf, " to them nor scold them, 
but speak to them in words of honor." (17:23) 

/' ' \i' * *s 't *^ --'' \ *•'- vita's 

"i4w/ // low rfo no/ protectively forgive me and have 
mercy on me I will be of the losers," (1 1 :47) 



241 28; Af <ww/\ o/ffo? Imperfect Tense-H 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR 




242 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 29 




THE IMPERATIVE VERB 

Direct Command - i^&UiSj/w 

The imperative is the command form of a verb. The imperative 
is of two kinds: 

♦ Direct command - ^JilklU J^Nl 

♦ Indirect command - JEsiUi j ^^ J» *■ 

4^lkliJ ^ is the "direct command" which is given to the 
second person. 

Example: 

^J°\ - (y° u ) hit 

y£\ - (you) help 

4-yM ~ (y° u ) drink 
Sometimes the command is given to the third and to the first person. 
In such case it is known as Indirect Command, ^SS2\ j ^ViAJ _y»Ml. 

243 29; Imperative Verb 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Example: 

^>J&l J - He should hit 
y*£\ J - 1 should help 
4ir^ J - I should drink. 

Direct command- LoLlsJJlJ^aVt 

As we have said earlier ytUdJJ jJ>'Sll is formed from the 
imperfect second person masculine and feminine. Now let us 
observe how the second person imperfect tense is changed to the 
imperative form of the verb. 





Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


2 person 
masculine 


You do/ will 
do 


You both do/ 
will do 


> 

You all do/ 
will do 


2 nd person 
feminine 


You do/ will 
do 


You both do/ 
will do 


You all do/ 
will do 


Step 1 : 

From the above f \ 


-sk^Jl table, u 


move the skn 


of the second 



person imperfect tense t4 o" as can be seen from the table below: 



244 



29; Imperative Verb 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 





Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


(-JA2- Jul* 

2 n person masculine 


# 


0^-^ 




2 nd person feminine 


6^ 


0*}Ui 


& 



Step 2: 

Add hamza, in the place of o. If the second radical of the 
imperfect tense bears fatha (—), or has rah (— ) then the 
prefixed hamza (\) will get kasrah (-7-). If the second radical 
bears dammah (^L) then the prefixed a///, (\) will also bear 
dammah (_£.). Note that there will never be fat ha ( -jL) on the 
prefix hamza, of command (y^i\ ). 





Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


2 n person masculine 


J^l 


-r 




2 nd person feminine 


oU^i 


giil; 


« 

6^1 



This prefixed hamza is called hamzatiil was I (J-^jJl °3*i), the 
/wwza of joining . Though present in the script, it is not read. It 
joins the preceding word with the succeeding word. 



245 



29: Imperative Verb 



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Step 3: 

The last letter of the masculine singular will bear sukoon (JL) 
on it. All other nun 's (<j) are dropped except that of feminine 
plural. Therefore, the command form, J*\ will be as below: 





llllil 

mm 

masam$ 


Dual 


";:>-3f!i*Jft,^ 


2 nd person masculine 


^ Q , 

Do 


Do (you both) 


Do (you all) 


2 nd person feminine 


Do 


%1\ 
Do (you both) 




Do (you all) 



Imperative form of rcl : 



'^M0:^ii0-^ v; ■;;-■" y ■■ ;: 


Singular 




-:-- :-"r:™"::..:^.'-':.!«™ 

Plural 


2 nd person masculine 


Open 


Open (you both) 


Open (you all) 


2 nd person feminine 


Open 


Open (you both) 


Open (you all) 



246 



29; Imperative Verb 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Imperative form of C>y& : 





Singular 


J 5 * 

Dual 


Plural 


2 n person masculine 


i 

Strike 


Strike (you both) 


Strike (you all) 


2 n person feminine 


Strike 


Strike (you both) 


Strike (you all) 


Imperative form of "J^ : 




Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


2 n person masculine 


Help 


Help (you both) 


Help (you all) 


2 nd person feminine 


> 

Help 


Help (you both) 


> 
Help (you all) 


"And that jow 
(36:61) 


should se 


rve Me, this is tf 


ie 


straight path." 



"Strike with your foot, this (water which thereby gushes 
out, is for a) cool bath and a drink." (38:42) 



247 



29: Imperative Verb 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"We said: '5/r/fe the (porous) rock with your staff.'" 
(2:60) 

"And when We (Allah) said to the angels, 'Bow down 
before Adam," 9 (2:34) 

"We said: 'O Adam! You and your wife, dwell in the 
garden." (2:35) 

"We said: 'Go down, some of you will be the enemies of 
others."' (2:36) 

"So remember Me I will remember you and be grateful 
to Me and do not be ungrateful to Me." (2:152) 

"So do u hat you are ordered to do." (2:68) 

"But if they fight with you then s/ay them." (2:191) 

248 29: Imperative Verb 



Learning Arab:: Language of the QUR'AN 



"5o//? go to Fir'awn, he has certaii ly rebelled." (20:43) 
"Sb enter among My servants/' (8*>:29) 

4 <£^>^=*ft 



"And pardon us, and protective!} forgive us, and /?av£ 
zwercy on us, You are our Guardiai so help us against the 
people who are infidels." (2:286) 

IMPERATIVE FORM OF HAMZATED VERBS: 

First Radical Hamza: 

The imperative is formed by removing tho sign of the imperfect 
tense, "o". The first radical hamza of >he word will also be 
dropped. No prefix {hamza) is used to make ti le _y»^l of such verbs. 

The imperative form of J3 \\ 





Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


2 nd person masculine 


Eat 


Eat(you both) 


Eat (you all) 


2 nd person feminine 


Eat 


Eat (you both) 


Eat (you all) 



249 



29; Imperative Verb 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"Then cat and drink and cool (your) eye." (19:26) 



"Take vim? from their wealth, through which you may 
clean them and purify them." (9:103) 



,<*! • ^ *-- \* <s . 



4 u^ -^^ijj^u^*^^ 

"Andeti from it freely (from) wherever you will." (2:35) 

"Hold v-'ith strength that which We have given you and 
listen." 2:93) 

Some hamzated verbs however deviate from their pattern and 
take the hamzatul wasl ' J^ll lyJS in the imperative form. 

The imperative form of 5^ : 





Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


2 n person masculine 


Permit 


Permit(you both) 


Permit (you all) 


2 nd person feminine 


Permit 


Permit(you both) 


Permit (you all) 



250 



29: Imperative Verb 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Second Radical Hamza: 
The imperative form of J LI : 





Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


T person masculine 


Ask 


Ask (you both) 


Ask (you all) 


2 person feminine 


Ask 


i 

Ask (you both) Ask (you all) 



The pattern for JUL can be made with or without hamzatul wasl 
'J^jll *>■*' as shown in the table above. 

"^4s£ the children of Israel, how many clear signs did We 
give them." (2:211) 



4, >" .tits' 4 i '"' * 4 S 9 S 

"And inquire in the city in which we were." (12:82) 
77jzV<i Rdical Hamza: 
The imperative form of 1^3 : 



' 


Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


2 nd person masculine 


Read 


1^ 
Read(you both) 


Read (you all) 


2 nd person feminine 


4?1 

Read 


v4\ 

Read(you both) 




Read (you all) 



251 



29: Imperative Verb 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



$f j)^- iS$\ *^j j^^> j/1 h 

"Recite in the name of your Fosterer Who created." (96:1) 

IMPERATIVE FORM OF WEAK VERBS: 

First radical j or ^ : (iSjty J^M - JjW> JV£J\) 

In lSjV^I JliJI where the first radical is j, the sign of the 
imperfect tense "o" is removed and the imperative is formed 
without hamzatal wasL 

The imperative form of j£j: 





Singular 


"^A 

Dual 


Plural 


2 nc person masculine 


JX- 

Promise 


lit 

Promise (you 
both) 


Promise (you 
all) 


2 nd person feminine 


Promise 


lit 

Promise (you 
both) 


51c- 

Promise (you 
all) 



In JL JIL> the first radical is ^, the imperative is formed by 
removing the sign of the imperfect tense "o" and by adding the 
hamzatal was I 'J^^l iyS\ 



252 



29; Imperative Verb 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



The imperative form of 








Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


2 person masculine 


Grieve 


Grieve (you both) 


Grieve (you all) 


2 n person feminine 


Grieve 


Grieve (you both) 


Grieve (you all) 



Hollow Verbs (^$1 JjiSh - Jldl u£^l) 

Here the imperative is formed without hamzatul was I J^Jll ijli 
and by removing the sign of the imperfect tense, "o". 

The imperative form of JU : 





Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


<^li£ Jul* 
2 n person masculine 


3 

Say 


Sfjl 

Say (you both) 


9 9 

Say (you all) 


2 n person feminine 


Say 


Say (you both) 


Say (you all) 



253 



29; Imperative Verb 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



The imperative form of ^U 





Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


2 nd person masculine 


b 

Sell 


Sell (you both) 


Sell (you all) 


2 nd person feminine 




Sell 


Sell (you both) 


s a 

Sell (you all) 



Defective Verbs: (&jty\ J»\2$\ - jl^ J*W) 

Here the sign of the imperfect tense, "6" is removed and 
hamzatul was! ' J^jJl Ijli 9 is prefixed to the ^Uai. The weak 
letters of the verb will be dropped in the masculine and feminine 
singular. 

The imperative form of IcS : 



~'-:~ll : ::-\'--\ ' "■■ .' 


Singular 1 


Dual 


'■"■■■■'■H^' ■■■'■ 

Plural 


2 nd person masculine 


> of 

Call 


ijcoi 

Call (you both) 


Call (you all) 


2 nd person feminine 


9* 

Call 


> 

Call (you both) 


Call (you all) 



254 



29: Imperative Verb 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



The imperative from of ^jj\ 





Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


2 nd person masculine 


Throw 


Throw(you both ) 


Throw (you all) 


T person feminine 


Throw 


Throw(you both ) 


Throw (you all) 



The imperative form of JLS: 





Singular 


" * A 

Dual 


Plural 


2 n person masculine 


Meet 


Meet (you both 


Meet (you all) 


2 nd person feminine 


Meet 


Meet (you both » 


6^1 

Meet (you all) 



255 



29: Imperative Verb 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



The imperative form of <£\\ : 





Singular 


us-"- 4 
Dual 


Plural 


2 n person masculine 


J 
See 


See (you both) 


»J3 
See (you all) 


2 n person fern mine 


See 


See (you both) 


6^j 
See (you all) 



Because ^ 13 is a hamzated weak verb it has irregularity in its pattern. 
Examples: 

"£a/ and /k^ your cattle." (20:54) 

"Say: '5/vwg the Torah and rea^/ it, if you are truthful.' v 
(3:93) 

"Invite to the way of your Fosterer with wisdom." (16:1 25) 

"Be patient, and your patience is not (due to anything) 
but by (the help of) Allah." (16:127) 



256 



29: Imperative Verb 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"Read that which is communicated to vou of the Book.' 
(29:45) 






"And pardon us, and protectively forgive us. (2:286) 






"Return to your Fosterer pleased ana pleasing (Him)." 

(89:28) 

IMPERATIVE FORM OF DOUBLY WEAK VERB: 

Here the imperative if formed by dropping the weak letter e$ and 
the sign of the imperfect tense "o". 

The imperative form of JJ: 





Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


2 nd person masculine 


Save 


Save(you both) 


1 .4 

Save (you all) 


2 nd person feminine 


Save 


Save(you both) 


Save (you all) 



257 



29: Imperative Verb 



— —-=— ^— =-= Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 

"Our Fosterer! Give us good in this world and good in the 
hereafter and save us from the punishment of fire." (2:20 1 ) 

IMPERATIVE FORM OF DOUBLED VERBS: 

The mperative is made by prefixing hamzatulwasl 'J^JJI sjli' 
after dropping the sign of the imperfect tense , "d>". 

The -imperative from JLL : 



2 person 
masculine 



o ; id 

2 person 
feminine 



Singular 



Dual 



Lower your 
voice/eyes 



* T 

Lower your 
voice/eyes 



Lower (you 
both) your 
voice/eyes 



Plural 



Lower (you 
both) your 
voice/eyes 



Lower (you 

all) your 

voice/eyes 






Lower (you 

all) your 

voice/eyes 



"And be moderate in your walk and lower your voice. 
(31:19) 



258 



29; Imperative Verb 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 30 




THE IMPERATIVE VERB - II 



* • 1 ^ * S 



Indirect Command -jJikiilj^U^^Vl 

The indirect command ' ( Jfo^j ^^^' is § iven t0 the third 
and first person imperfect tense. This is done by adding prefix 
"J" of the jussive to the third and first person imperfect tense. It 
is called lam of command (Ja^S fl). 



; ;^:;..-V^^f&y 


Singular 


* * * 
Dual 


Plural 


3 rd person masculine 


He should 
do 


They both 
should do 


They all 
should do 


3 rd person feminine 


She should 
do 


They both 
should do 


6te 

They all 
should do 


First person 
(Masculine/Feminine) 


I should do 


- 


We 
should do 



259 



30: Imperative Verb-II 



=== Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 

When lam of command "J" is prefixed to the imperfect tense, 
the last letter of the third person singular and first person 
singular and plural will bear a sukoon («!_). 

The fc j' of the dual and plurals are dropped except for third 
person feminine plural. 

Example: 

"And they will call out, 'O Malik (Angel incharge of 
Hell)! Let your Fosterer make an end of 'us.' He will say, 
'You certainly have to stay (here)."' (43:77) 
Note: When lam of command "J" is preceded bya j0 raJ, 
the kasrah (— ) of the J is changed to sukoon (_L). 
Examples: 

"So let them serve the Fosterer of this house (Ka'bah) " 
(106:3) ; ' 

"Then write it down W fe* a writer write it down between 
you with fairness.' 1 (2:282) 

'Then let his guardian dictate with fairness." (2:282) 

4 ^/^JlaSljui^ 



"The Beneficent (Allah) allows to stretch for him." (19:75) 
260 30; Imperative Verb-II 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 31 




TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERB 

-* ? s S % ^ ) A 



ffcjMJtj ^JUl U H (JjLdll 



Verbs are of two types: 

♦ Intransitive verb - f j^AM J*f^ 

♦ Transitive verb -^JJeuJl jAiJI 

1. INTRANSITIVE VERB - £pU\ J«J\ 

When an intransitive verb is used in a sentence, there is no need 
of an object. The verb along with the subject gives complete 
meaning to the sentence. 

Example: 

"Andrew used to laugh at (some) of them." (23:1 10) 
"And they came to their father at night fall, weeping" (12:1 6) 



261 31 ; Transitive and Intransitive Verb 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



o ^ o,. 



2. TRANSITIVE VERB - £ jJoUl Jiill 

A transitive verb will always need an object. When a transitive 
verb is used in a sentence it will have a subject as well as an 
object to give complete sense to a sentence. 



Example: 



-r_jyU- ^1^ Jcij 



"And Dawood killed Jalut." (2:251) 

"Allah sets forth an example for those who do not believe." 
(66:10) 

Sometimes transitive verbs need more than one object. 

"Who made the Earth a spreading for you." (2:22) 



262 31: Transitive and Intransitive Verb 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 32 




THE PAST PASSIVE VERB 

o » a " 

The known verb d££J\ jiift is the active voice of the verb. 
Here the subject is known, i.e. the doer of the verb is specified. 
We have discussed these kinds of verbs i a all the preceding 
chapters on the pattern of Jil, J*S , jii. 
Example: 

"That Allah is displeased with them and they will stay in 
the punishment." (5:80) 

"Until when he reached the setting place of the sun (West)." 

(18:86) 
The passive voice of the verb is called j^*lM JiiJI (unknown). 
The subject is unknown i.e the doer is not specified. The passive 
verb is usually formed from a transitive verb (&^c2\ J^)- 



263 



32; Past Passive Verb 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



It has two components - the passive verb and the object. As the subject 
Jf \li\ is not present, the object will take the harakah of the subject i.e 
dammah (jl) and is called the deputy of subject JpUJI djtf. 
Example: 

"And the records (of deeds) will be placed." (1 8:49) 
The passive verb :s formed by changing the harakah of active 
participle j^, Jj , ^, to J*l. The change is standard for all 
verbs and is characterized by dammah (_L) on the first radical 
and kasrah (— ) on the second radical. 

Passive Verb of Consonants - ^l?*lall 

Table of *ij : 





Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


3 r person masculine 


He was 
raised 


They two 
were raised 


They all 
were raised 


3 r person feminine 


CUaJ i\ 

She was 
raised 


They two 
were raised 


They all 
were raised 


2 n person masculine 


You were 
raised 


You two 
were raised 


> o . ^ 

You all 
were raised 



264 



32: Pas* Passive Verb 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



2 nd person feminine 


You were 
raised 


You both 
were raised 


You all 
were raised 


First person 
(Masculine/Feminine) 


> 4 > 

I was 
raised 


- 


We were 
raised 



Table of J^ and 



*-*-**> 





Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


3 person 
masculine 


He was 
helped 


They both 
were helped 


They all were 
helped 


3 person 
feminine 


She was 
helped 


They both 
were helped 


They all were 
helped 


2 nd person 
masculine 


You were 
helped 


You both 
were helped 


> > 

You all were 
helped 


2 nd person 
feminine 


You were 
helped 


\ -to i 

You both 
were helped 


You all were 
helped 


First person 


> > 

I was helped 


- 


1*0 * 

We were 
helped 



265 



32; Pas/ Passive Verb 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 





Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


3 person 
masculine 


He was 
heard 


They both 
were heard 


10 > J" 

They all were 
heard 


^rd 

3 person 
feminine 


^ > 

She was 
heard 


They both 
were heard 


They all were 
heard 


2 nd person 
masculine 


You were 
heard 


You both 
were heard 


You all were 
heard 


ond : 

2 person j 
feminine i 


-* 


You both 
were heard 


You all were 
heard 


You were 
heard 


He* - ° J 

First person I was heard 


- 


We were heard 



Examples: 



"When the sun and the moon will be brought together." 
(75:9) 



jifii ot ^ \ cS (S\jS^jj iit OjM c$ U 



266 



32; Past Passive Verb 



— ««=»=== Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 

"Those who resist Allah and His Messenger will certainly 
be disgraced as those before them were disgraced." (58:5) 

$k y jjl c-i&S iU£)l 0--'*j ^ 

"And the sky will b$ ooeHed a*4 it will become gates." 
(78:19) 

"And towards the sky how zY is raised" (88: 18) 



"And towards the mountains how /Aey are rooted" (88: 1 9) 
"And towards the Earth how it is spread?" (88:20) 
"And when wild animals are brought together" (81:5) 

"Had we any power in the affair, we would not have 
been slain here." (3:154) 

"5e killed owners of the pit." (85:4) 

267 32: /W Poss/Ve Verb 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"Fasting is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for 
those before you." (2:1 83) 



\febt tejj<S$\ \x* \J& kjj0&.ij*Q'&+> & 



"Whenev^-^Aeyr^v/^fee^rf^frbm them with fruits as 
food, they will say, 'This is that which was provided to 
us before.'" (2:25) 

$$£^$ 

"Except (from) one to whom injustice was done." 
(4:148) 

"And r/zev uv'// be presented before your Fosterer in ranks." 
(18:48) 

"And it will be blown into the trumpet." (39:68) 

HAMZATED VERBS j^^JJ i)M*U *>^t 

When hamza V comes as first, second or third radical as in J? I, 
J LI or l_y the passive voice is on the same pattern as that of J*l. 
That is the first radical bears a dammah (_L) and the second 
radical bears a has rah (— ). The following tables demonstrate 
their conjugation. 

268 32; Pas* Passive P<?#* 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR' AN 



The table of 





Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


3 r person masculine 


5 

He was 
commanded 


i 

VjA\ 

They both 

were 
commanded 


They all 

were 

commanded 


3 rd person feminine 


9- 

She was 
commanded 


They both 

were 
commanded 


They all 

were 

commanded 


2 nd person masculine 


9 

s- 

You were 
commanded 


You both 

were 

commanded 


> 

You all 

were 

commanded 


2 nd person feminine 


s- 

You were 
commanded 


9 

You both 

were 

commanded 


a*, f 

You all 

were 

commanded 


First person 
(Masculine/Feminine) 


I was 
commanded 


- 


We were 
commanded 



269 



32; Past Passive Verb 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



The table of Ji«. and \y* : 







- v ■■ ■ ■ ■■'. ; ! — < 

iiiiiiiiBM^IiJrtHli^ 


1 

mmm 

P Mural 


3 rd person 
masculine 


He was asked 


They both 
were asked 


They ail 
were asked 


^>rd 

3 person 
feminine 


She was 
asked 


They both 
were asked 


They all 
were asked 


2 nd person 
masculine 




You were 
asked 


u-k. 


You all were 
asked 


You both 
were asked 


2 nd person 
feminine 


You were 
asked 


You both 
were asked 


You all were 
asked 


First person 


I was asked 


- 




We were 
asked 



270 



32: Past Passive Verb 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 





Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


3 r person masculine 


He was 
ridiculed 


They botft 

were 
ridiculed 


They all 

were 
ridiculed 


3 r person feminine 


She was 
ridiculed 


\£\yt> 

They botii 

were 
ridiculec 


They all 

were 
ridiculed 


2 nd person 
masculine 


You were 
ridiculed 


You both 

were 
ridiculed 


You all were 
ridiculed 


2 nd person feminine 


You were 
ridiculed 


You both 

were 
ridiculed 


You all were 
ridiculed 


First person 


I was 
ridiculed 


- 


We were 
ridiculed 



271 



32; Past Passive Verb 



=^=*^^^=^^^^= Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 

WEAK VERBS - aki ^jilkvi 

Assimilated Passive Verb - JliJl: 

When j comes as the first radical in place of o in the active voice, the 
pattern will be the same as J*i and we will not observe any changes. 

Table of Icj : 





Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


3 ,d person 
masculine 


He was 
promised 


They both were 
promised 


They all were 
promised 


3 person 
feminine 


She was 
promised 


They both were 
promised 


They all were 
promised 


/-\nd 

2 person 
masculine 


You were 
promised 


You both were 
promised 


You all were 
promised 


2 person 
feminine 


You were 
promised 


You both were 
promised 


You all were 
promised 


First person 
(Masculine 
/Feminine) 


t ° > 

I was 
promised 


- 


We were 
promised 



272 



32; Past Passive Verb 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Verbs with the first radicle '^' are usually intransitive verbs (fjSUl JiiJI) 
Hence passive voice of these verbs cannot be formed. Example: 

Hollow Verbs - <S£^\ : 

When j comes as the second radical in place of ^as in JU (Jy), 
the passive should be Jy according to the rule but it is read as 
JlS for easy pronunciation. 

Table for JlS: 





Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


3 rd person masculine 


He was 
told 


^41 

They both 
were told 


They all 
were told 


3 rd person feminine 


liJuS 

She was 
told 


\£ilS 

They both 
were told 


They all 
were told 


2 nd person masculine 


cull 

You were 
told 


.9 9 

UilS 

You both 
were told 


You all were 
told 


2 nd person feminine 


oil 

You were 
told 


UilS 

You both 
were told 


You all were 
told 


First person 
(Masculine/Feminine) 


I was told 


- 


We were 
told 



273 



32: Past Passive Verb 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



As we see from the above table, the passive voice of the third 
person feminine plural is jil The pattern will then carry 
forward as the past tense table. 



Table for 



i\tj: 



j^ 



5 rd 



3 r person masculine 



Slfc 



e-jj^ 



Singular 



He was 
feared 



Dual 



They both 
were feared 



Plural 



3 r person feminine 



She was 
feared 



^Ut Jfl* 



-,Tld 



2 person mascul i ne 



You were 
feared 



C-Jplj£- clo^a 



-,nd 



2 person feminine 



First person 
(Masculine/Feminine) 



You were 
feared 



They both 
were feared 



You both 
were feared 



I was 
feared 



You both 
were feared 



They all 
were feared 



They all 
were feared 



You all were 
feared 






You all were 
feared 



We were 
feared 



As oli Mj^) is exception to the pattern of jlS, the third 
person feminine plural will be jjU- and then the table will carry 
forward as in the past tense. 



274 



32: Past Passive Verb 



Learning Arabic Language of the QURAN 



When iS comes as second radical in place of ^ as in ^ ( ^ ), 
the passive voice should have been £? according to general rule. 
However it is written as £^> for easy pronunciation. 

Table for £^> : 



:. 



\: >S" 



3 rd person masculine 



& 



<z^y 



3 rd person feminine 



He was sold 



She was sold 



2 nd person masculine 



Ub\3- 



o> 



2 person feminine 



JoCLa 

First person 
(Masculine/Feminine) 



You were 
sold 



Dual 



They both 
were sold 



They both 
were sold 



You were 
sold 



I was sold 



You both 
were sold 



L»i*j 



They all 
were sold 



They all 

were sold 



You all 
were sold 



You both 
were sold 



£>9 

You all 
were sold 



We were 
sold 



From the above pattern, we see that the passive verb of the third 
person feminine plural is jL and the pattern following it is the 
same as in the past tense. 



275 



32; Past Passive Verb 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Defective Verbs: ^ailsJl 

When j comes in place of J as in IcS (£3) then its passive verb 
instead of being ^ i will be written as ££:>. 

Table of ^S: 



L^olc- J$J 



Jua 



3rd 



3 person masculine 



i\t 



O ±A 



,rd 



3 person feminine 



ZJLA 

Singular 



He was 
called 



Dual 



U-J^l^-^JUa 



>nd 



2 person masculine 



C^l^- dJij-a 



^nd 



2 person feminine 



She was 
called 



You were 
called 



You were 
called 



They both 
were called 



They both 
were called 



Plural 



They all 
were called 



You both 
were called 



You both 
were called 



They all 
were called 



You all were 
called 



You all were 
called 



First person 
(Masculine/Feminme) 



1 was called 



We were 
called 



When & comes in place of J as in Jj and jA, the passive verb 
pattern follows ^ ; and ^ respectively as according to the 
standard pattern of Jxi. 



276 



32: Pas/ Passive Verb 



\_eavn\ng /\vab\c Language o\ the QUR 1 KU 



PASSIVE VOICE OF DOUBLY WEAK VERBS 



uiiii 



Doubly weak verbs such as j,J become £|j according to J*i and 
will follow the standard pattern. 



DOUBLE LETTERED VERBS- Lo^llbXI 

Double lettered verbs like Jas- becomes J^k and follow the 
standard pattern. 

Table for Ja£*: 



Singular 



Dual 



Plural 



>Jua 



3 r person masculine 



He was 
bitten 



Those two 
were bitten 



They all 
were bitten 



i\L 



o> 



->rd 



3 person feminine 



She was 
bitten 



Those two 
were bitten 



They all 
were bitten 



>nd 



l^U£ Jul* 



,^^P 



2 person masculine 



You were 
bitten 



You both 
were bitten 



You all 
were bitten 



L^J^l^- doLa 



■*nd 



2 person feminine 



You were 
bitten 



You both 
were bitten 



You all 
were bitten 



First person 
(Masculine/Feminine) 



I was 
bitten 



We were 
bitten 



277 



32; Past Passive Verb 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Examples: 

"And when it is said to them, 'Do not cause corruption 
in the Earth.'" (2: 11) 

"And z7 ivas said, 'O Earth! Swallow your water and 
sky! Withhold (the rain).' And the water was absorbed 
(in the earth) and the affair was decided" (1 1 :44) 

A rt-j^jj (S^j ^•Xf£$\) o^H \'*Z^J <~r^Q\ r^Jjy 

"And the record (of deeds) will be laid down and the 
prophets (informers) and the witnesses will be brought, 
and it will be judged between them with justice." 
(39:69) 

iljffi £$&*&} 

"A similitude of the garden, which is promised to those 
who guard (against evil)." (47: 1 5) 

"And the Book (of Deeds) will be placed (before you); 
and thou wilt see the sinful in great terror because of 
what is (recorded) therein." (18:49) 



278 32: Past Passive Verb 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 






"Say, 7 am forbidden to serve, those whom you pray to, 
besides Allah/" (6:56) 



"And those who did not believe will be driven to hell in 
troops." (39:71) 

"Then (if) he is oppressed, Allah will de finitely help him." 
(22:60) 

"And whether you are slain in the way of Allah or you 
die." (3:157) 

"That is because, when Allah Alone was prayed to ( i.e. 
invoked), you did not believe." (40: 12) 






"And when His signs are read to them, it increases them 
(in) faith." (8:2) 



279 32; Pas* Passive Verb 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"When the Earth will be shaken (with) a shaking." (56:4) 

"And the mountains will be crumbled (with) a shaking." 
(56:5) 



280 32: Pas/ Passive Verb 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 33 




THE IMPERFECT PASSIVE TENSE 

o ,» o ' * * fi ° ' 

The imperfect passive is formed by giving dammah (™L) to the 
sign of the imperfect tense, and fatha (— ) on the second radical. 



Passive Verb of Consonants 



■&* 



Oil^tt 



Example: 
Table of iS^I : 





Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


3 r person masculine 


He is being 

raised/will 

be raised 


They both 
are being 

raised/will 
be raised 


1 o * T oJ 

They all are 
being raised/ 

will be 

raised 



281 



33: Imperfect Passive Tense 



Learning Arabic Language of the QURAN 











i -olC- Co !~a 


She is being 


They both 


They all are 


3 rd person feminine 


raised/ will 
be raised 


are being 
raised/ will 


being raised/ 
will be 






be raised 


raised 






gl*V 




2 nd person masculine 


You are 

being raised/ 

will be 


You both 

are being 

raised/ will 


You all are 

being raised/ 

will be 




raised 


be raised 


raised 






gliS^ 


Cf*S 


2 nd person feminine 


You are 

being raised/ 

will be 


You both 

are being 

raised/ will 


You all are 

being raised/ 

will be 




raised 


be raised 


raised 


J$CLa 


> 
1 am being 




We are being 


First person 
(Masculine/Femin ine) 


raised/will 
be raised 




raised/will be 
raised 



282 



33; Imperfect Passive Tense 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



HAMZATED VERBS -j^ll 



Table of _£& 





^ .a 

GO 


lllliIll!llSI;!liil!!iiiiSi;i!h^'f; 


fttMafc .■. ■ ■-■{■■-■-■■ ■■ 


3 person 
masculine 


He is being 

ordered/will 

be ordered 


They both are 

being ordered/will 

be ordered 


They all are 
being ordered/ 
will be ordered 


ird 

3 person 
feminine 


She is being 

ordered/will 

be ordered 


They both are 
being ordered/ 
will be ordered 


They all are 
being ordered/ 
will be ordered 


^nd 

2 person 
masculine 


You are being 

ordered/will 

be ordered 


You both are 
being ordered/ 
will be ordered 


You all are 

ordered/will be 

ordered 


2 nd person 
feminine 


You are 

ordered/will 

be ordered 


You both are 

ordered/will be 

ordered 


You all are 

ordered/will be 

ordered 


First person 
(Masculine/ 
Feminine) 


> 

I am ordered/ 
will be 
ordered 


- 


We are ordered/ 
will be ordered 



283 



33: Imperfect Passive Tense 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Table of JUi : 



l-JI^^Sj 



j^> 



3 rd person 
masculine 



3 rd person 
feminine 



Singular 



JL14 

He is being 

asked/will be 

asked 



She is being 
asked/will be 

asked 



Dual 



They both are 

being asked/will 

be asked 



2 nd person 
masculine 



They both are 

being asked/will 

be asked 



2 nd person 
feminine 



First person 

(Masculine/ 

Feminine) 



You are 
b:ing asked/ 
w ill be asked 



You are 
being asked/ 
will be asked 



i am being 
isked/ will 
be asked 



You both are 

being asked/will 

be asked 



Plural 



They all are 
being asked/ 
will be asked 



They all are 
being asked/ 
will be asked 



You both are 

being asked/will 

be asked 



You all are 
being asked/ 
will be asked 



You all are 

being asked/will 

be asked 



JUS 

We are being 

asked/ will be 

asked 



284 



33: Imperfect Passive Tense 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Table of Klj : 



LH^ 



-3 person 
masculine 



nrd 

3 person 
feminine 



I person 
masculine 



uJpI^.. 



uLa 



^nd 

2 person 
feminine 



Singular 



He is being 

ridiculed/will 

be ridiculed 



Dual 



Plural 



Those two are 
being ridiculed/ 
ill be ridiculed 



They all are 
being ridiculed/ 
will be ridiculed 



She is being 

ridiculed/will 

be ridiculed 



You are being 
ridiculed/ill 
be ridiculed 



*-°i 



Those two are 
being ridiculed/ 
will be ridiculed 



-- ° « 



First person 
(Masculine/ 
Feminine) 



You are being 

ridiculed/will 

be ridiculed 



They all are 
being ridiculed/ 
will be ridiculed 



You both are 
being ridiculed/ 
will be ridiculed 



I am being 

ridiculed/will 

be ridiculed 



You both are 
being ridiculed/ 
will be ridiculed 



You all are 
being ridiculed/ 
will be ridiculed 



You all are 
being ridiculed/ 
will be ridiculed 



h ' 

We are being 

ridiculed/will be 

ridiculed 



285 



33; Imperfect Passive Tense 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



WEAK VERBS - 3di*l ^Vl 
The pattern of 5s% : 1*j -* ji^S ■ 
ji^ is according to the passive imperfect tense Jii*. 
As mentioned in the previous chapter, there will be no passive 
voice for the verbs beginning with ^ as they are intransitive verbs. 

The pattern of jlS : SjK ^ S&- ^J is chan g ed t0 lon g al $ '^- 
Table of jlll: 



U) 



3 rd person 
masculine 



3 rd person 
feminine 



HH3 

Singular 



He has been 

told/will be 

told 



■ ^ 
Dual 



They both have 

been told/will be 

told 



Plural 



2 nd person 
masculine 



She has been 

told/will be 

told 



You have 

been told/ 

will be told 



They both have 

been told/will be 

told 



You both have 

been told/ will be 

told 



They all have 

been told/will be 

told 



They all have 

been told/will be 

told 



You all have 

been told/ will 

be told 



286 



33; Imperfect Passive Tense 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



r>nd 



Oj^a 



person 
feminine 



First person 

(Masculine/ 

Feminine) 



You have 

been told/ 

will be told 



I have been 

told/will be 

told 



You both have 
been told/will be 

told 



You all have 

been told/will be 

told 



We have been 
told/will be told 



plurals, the alif, 



In the third person and second person feminine 
T will be dropped. 

The passive Verb of 9\j : *1^> -> £ UJ 

The ^ is changed to a long alij\ T. This a//Ms dropped from 
second and third person feminine plurals. 

The passive verb of 1^3 : V^ijJ ~> J^jj 

Table of (^jj : 





Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


ord 

3 person 
masculine 


He is called/ 
will be called 


They both are 
called/will be called 


They all are 
called/will be called 


ord 

3 person 
feminine 


She is called/ 
will be called 


They both are 
called/will be called 


They all are 
called/will be called 



287 



33: Imperfect Passive Tense 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



2 nd person 
masculine 


You are 

called/will be 

called 


You both are 

called/will be 

called 


You all are 

called/will be 

called 


2 nd person 
feminine 


You are 

called/will be 

called 


You both are 

called/will be 

called 


You all are 

called/will be 

called 


First person 

(Masculine/ 

Feminine) 


> 

1 am called/ 
w ill be called 


- 


We are called/ 
will be called 



♦ Passive verb of <Jj : ££ -> <^j. 

♦ Passive verb of ^ : JDo -> JiL. 

DOUBLY WEAK VERB - «Vj/ltl 

♦ Passive voice of jj : /\£> -> J^i. 

DOUBLE LETTERED VERBS- L^llbll 

♦ Passive verb of ^yaP : ^^v -> <j^*j 



288 



33; Imperfect Passive Tense 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Table of J^ju : 



3 rd person 
masculine 



3 rd person 
feminine 



Singular 

He is bitten/ 
will be bitten 



_Dual_ 

They both are 

bitten/will be 

bitten 



2 nd person 
masculine 






She is bitten/ 
will be bitten 



You are 

bitten/will be 

bitten 



^b\3-> 



jJLa 



2 nd person 
feminine 



You are 

bitten/will be 

bitten 



First person 

, i i am urin.*/"i 

(Masculine/ 1 wUlbebitten 
Feminine) 



I am bitten/ 



They both are 

bitten/will be 

bitten 



You both are 

bitten/will be 

bitten 



You both are 

bitten/will be 

bitten 



Plural 

They all are 

bitten/will be 

bitten 



They all are 

bitten/will be 

bitten 



You all are 

bitten/will be 

bitten 



You all are 

bitten/will be 

bitten 






We are bitten/ 
will be bitten 



289 



33: Imperfect Passive Tense 



=== ^=^=^= Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 
Examples: 

/ < >' * „-;*>s , >; *♦ „'.&{ > .<'<' x 

\ \ -^ ^ -" ' s y 

"And the punishment of the hereafter will be more 
disgracefi and they will not be helped?" (41:16) 

"And on the Day the enemies of Allah w'// fee gathered 
towards the fire, then they will be formed into ordered 
ranks r (4i:19) 

"Do not fear nor grieve but receive the good news of the 
garden which you are promised"" (41 :30) 

"Nothing is said to you except that which was said to the 
messengers before you." (41 :43) 

4 ^j^^j^^\^j^X Cj 



"As if //zei> ivere feemg invert towards death and they 
were seeing (it)." (8:6) 

"On the Day (the covering) vv/7/ fee removed from the 
ankle (there being a calamity), and ^ey w/7/ fee ca/foi for 

290 33: Imperfect Passive Tense 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



prostrations, but they will not be able to (prostrate)." 
(68:42) 

"Nor will recommendation be accepted for him nor will 
compensation be taken from him nor will they be 
helped." (2:48) 



"And guard (yourselves against) a Day in which you will 
be returned to Allah, then every soul will be paid back in 
full that which it had earned, and injustice will not be 
done to them." (2:281) 

"And how would you reject, when you are those to 
whom the statements of Allah are read." (3:101) 



"Boiling water will be poured over their heads." (22:19) 



291 33; Imperfect Passive Tense 



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292 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 34 




DOUBLE EMPHASIS 



To emphasize the meaning of the imperfect tense J is added as a 
prefix to the imperfect tense (pjLai) and aJJJ&jI oyi\ (0) or 
*frf^ 0°J^\ (0) as the suffix. For example: 

jiiJd/^^iikJ - Indeed he will do. 

Table with il^l 0^(0): 





Singular 


:j^ :■■■ 

Dual 


Plural 


3 rd person 
masculine 


0^' 

Indeed he 

does/will do 


Indeed they both 
do/will do 


Indeed they all 
do/will do 


3 person 
feminine 


Indeed she 
does/will do 


Indeed they both 
do/will do 


Indeed they all 
do/will do 


2 nd person 
masculine 


Indeed you 
do/will do 


Indeed you both 
do/will do 


Indeed you all 
do/will do 



293 



34; Double Emphasis 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



2 nd person 
feminine 


Indeed you 
do/will do 


Indeed you both 
do/will do 


Indeed you all 
do/will do 


First person 

(Masculine/ 

Feminine) 


Indeed I 
do/will do 


- 


Indeed we all 
do/will do 



Table with <£j&~\ dj^\ (j) 



::;,,::: : y-... v ■■; 


Singular 


. . ..„ ., .... ..... .,.. ..,,..,,,...,. 


■'■■'.■■■ 


Plural 


■■■■; <J^:. . 

Dual 




ord 

3 person 
masculine 


Indeed he 
does/will do 


Indeed they both 
do/will do 


•lib' 

Indeed they all 
do/will do 


3 rd person 
feminine 


Indeed she 
does/will do 


Indeed they both 
do/will do 


Indeed they all 
do/will do 


2 nd person 
masculine 


Indeed you 
do/will do 


Indeed you both 
do/will do 


•Aju&j 

Indeed you all 
do/will do 


ond 

2 person 
feminine 


Indeed you 
do/will do 


Indeed you both 
do/will do 


Indeed you all 
do/will do 


First person 

(Masculine/ 

Feminine) 


Indeed I 
do/will do 


- 


Indeed we 
do/will do 



294 



34; Double Emphasis 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



xg'p\ W and x£j& dy can also come attached to the imperative 

(yH\) and the passive (j)4^) forms of the verb. 

Examples: 

"And if he does not do what I command him to do, he 
will definitely be imprisoned and he will be of those who 
are degraded." (12:32) 

&&M 0^ (5) can be attached without j to the imperfect (^jLki) 

for emphasis. 

Example: 

"O children of Adam! Do not let the devil tempt your (7:27) 

4 t^d'*- >0^ ^-^ f^°^ J^J ^^ 4^ lfr t^.f 

"O children of Adam! Whenever there come to you 
messengers from among you, narrating to you My signs." 

(7:35) 

"Then if yow dominate them in war, disperse them (in 
such a manner that) those who succeed (them not being 
present with) them, they (too) may be mindful." (8:57) 

295 34; Double Emphasis 



============ Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 

"And if you fear betrayal from a people then throw back 
to them (their agreement) on equal terms." (8:58) 

J can come without j attached with a noun, pronoun or preposition. 

4 ^i^r^ J^ ^sJ Ch t» ^frl^ 

"What! When we become (part of the) soil (after our death) 
shall we indeed he (created) in a new creation?" (13:5) 

"Man is certainly at a loss." (103:2) 



> --> . 



"And whoever strives, he strives only for (the benefit of) 
his own soul. Allah is certainly Independent of the worlds " 
(29:6) 



Examples: 



"No, if he does not stop, We will drag him, seizing him 
by his forelock." (96:15) 

"/ w// definitely punish him with a severe punishment 
or slaughter him or //e s//owW definitely come to me with 
a clear authority (justifying his absence)." (27:21) 



296 34; Double Emphasis 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"Return to them, and tv<? w/// definitely come to them 
with armies which they will not be able to oppose, and 
we will definitely drive them out from there, disgraced." 

(27:37) 

© \j^==> ty& y*4^ ^yJ^ <-£3^ 4 ojuJi^ ^ 

"That you will definitely cause corruption in the earth 
twice and you will definitely transgress (with) a great 
transgression." (17:4) 

m jc^>l^ ?tJ a&\ l^j LL*u l^L j^J L^ ^ -*4-^ <^£^1? # 

"And those who strive for Us, We will definitely guide 
them to Our ways, and Allah is certainly with the doers 
of good." (29:69) 

"TTzey w// definitely say, 'Allah.' How then are they 
turned away (form the truth)?" (29:6 1 ) 

"He (Musa) zs certainly a great (expert ] among you all 
who has taught you the magic. So I will definitely cut off 
your hands and your feet from opposite sides and / will 
definitely crucify you on the trunks of the palm trees, and 



297 34. Double Emphasis 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



you will definitely know which of us has more severe and 
more lasting punishment." (20: 71) 

a"If you do not desist / will definitely stone you, now go 
away from me for a longtime." (19:46) 

"Then shall we question those to whom Our message 
was sent and those by whom We sent it." (7:6) 

"Then We will definitely narrate to them with knowledge 
because We were never absent." (7:7) 

"Because You have removed me from the way, / will 
definitely sit waiting for them (human beings) on Your 
straight path." (7:16) 

"Certainly there are signs in that for a people who believe." 

(30:37) 



298 34: Double Emphasis 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




n 



hapter 35 




ACTIVE PARTICIPU 

In Arabic, the noun used for the doer of an action (subject) is 
called Jpli!l ^l. It is formed by adding an aUJ . (() to ^ fct 

radical of the verb Jii. The middle letter is given a /W, (_.) 
and the last radical is given tanwin (j^/i-i). The active 
participle pattern will be jctf. 
Example: 

' ' ' v * I - 

To prostrate one who prostrates 

To praise one who praises 

To disbelieve/ disbeliever/ 
To be ungrateful ungrateful one 



299 



35: Active Participle 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Active participle table for masculine gender: 



(Case) 


Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


Nominative ir?j>\ SJli) 


A doer 


Two doers 


Doers 


Accusative (^^aSJI 4JU-) 


A doer 


Two doers 


Doers 


Genitive QJL\ illi.) 


A doer 


Two doers 


Doers 



Active participle table for feminine gender: 



(Case) 


Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


Nominative (asJ^ SJli) 


A doer 
(woman) 


Two doers 
(women) 


Otitis 

Doers 
(women) 


Accusative (l-^sJI 4Jli) 


A doer 
(woman) 


Two doers 
(women) 


Doers 
(women) 


Genitive ("^3-\ aJU~) 


Sic- ll 

A doer 
(woman) 


Two doers 
(women) 


Doers 
(women) 



300 



35: Active Participle 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Examples: 



"Say, 'Q InfidelsV" ( 109:1) 

"And I am not a server of that which you serve." (109:4) 



"And you are not servers of that which I serve/' (109:5) 

"Then they will become regretters over th it which they 
had hidden in their souls (minds)." (5:52) 

"And for them there will be pure mates (spouses) therein 
and therein they shall stay" (2:25) 

HAMZATED AND ASSIMILATED VERB - ^tj j^ll 

Hamzated verbs on the pattern of J? I, JUL and \j or assimilated 
verbs on the pattern of ibj and yj± take their actr- e participle on 
the pattern of JcA*. 

Example: 

JS \ -^ Jg \ - One who eats 

301 35. Active Participle 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



JU -» J^U* - Questioner 

IjS -^ f>j^ - One who reads 

ipj -> IpIj - One who promises 

'jJz -$ j^U - One who becomes easy 
£xam/?/e; 

"A questioner asked about the punishment to befall." (70:1) 

9 

Note: Some active participles are on the pattern of Jl*i. These 
come as adjectives and describe eternal, everlasting qualities, 

Example: 






- Great one 

- Good one 

jS - Big one 
Examples: 

He said, 'Then get out of it, for you are certainly driven 
awayr (15:34) 









"He is none other than an honored angel." (12:31) 



^Jc^J 






302 



35; Active Partich 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"The Beneficent, the Merciful" (1:3) 

"(The Queen) said, 'O you chiefs! A:i honorable letter 
has been delivered to me.'" (27:29) 

"A mercy from your Fosterer, He is certainly the All- 
Hearing, the All-Knowing" (44:6) 

^ j^JaJl J^l^Aj U^W fl ^ .oij^lj JJs 

"And it does not tire Him to presene (monitor) them 
both, and He is the High, the Greatest. (2:255) 

"And effecting reconciliation between human beings, 
and Allah is the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing" (2:224) 

HOLLOW VERBS - iijki 

When the second radical is the weak letter or ^, then their 
active participle will be on the pattern of JJll. 

Examples: 

JIS -> J5ll - One who speaks 

f- U -> *jU - One who sells 



303 35: Active Participle 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



DEFECTIVE VERBS ^oSliil 

When the third radical is the weak letter 3 or ^, for e.g. IcS and Jj, 
the active participle will be on the pattern of^c-lS andj^j as per 
the pattern Jj^U. however we observe a change in its formation. 

Ico -> ^c ' S -> ^ ^S - One who calls 
(JJ -> 9 y^] -> glj - One who throws 

riJ -> jr..' -> jS - One who meets 

This is because when j or ^ bear dammah tanwin (JL) and is 
preceded by kasrah (— ), then the j and c5 are dropped and the 
harakah of the previous letter is changed to toi« tera/? (-7-). 

Table of £l3 : 

For masculine gender: 



(Case! 


Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


Nominative {?^ i5l*-) 


A caller 


Two callers 


Callers 


> -* 
Accusative (v^^alJ* iJli) 


A caller 


Two callers 


Callers 


Genitive (j£-l aJI^-) 


A caller 


Two callers 


Callers 



304 



35; Active Participle 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



For feminine gender: 




Nominative (*i^ iJUO 



Accusative (^Ja^\ ill*-) 



A caller 
(woman) 



A caller 
(woman) 



Two callers 
(wcmen) 



a- ^ i" 



Two callers 
(women) 



oIIpIS 

Callers 
(women) 



Genitive (^\ *J\i) 



A caller 
(woman) 



Two callers 
(women) 



ollc^S 

Callers 
(women) 



oIIpIS 

Callers 
(women) 



Note: When j\ is added to the singular of active participles like 

£(S, the c5 will be written as J;^\. 

DOUBLE LETTERED VERBS - L^tlbXt 

According to the pattern Jfli , active participle of verbs on the 
pattern of & should be '&&. But they will be written with a 

shaddah (JL) as 0^- 

^g ^ ^ -» CA£ - One who suspects 

J^-» jlU>-> JU>- One who goes astray 

"Not (the path of those), upon who n is Your anger, nor 
of those who are astray:' (1:7) 

305 35; Active Participle 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



For masculine gender: 



(Case) 


Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


Nominative 0*1^1 Uli ) 


One who 
suspects 


gvSUs 

Those two 
who suspects 


Those who 
suspects 


Accusative (<^^JI ilU.) 


One who 

suspects 


Those two 
who suspects 


Those who 
suspects 


Genitive (jjil Uli) 


5us 

One who 
suspects 


Those two 
who suspects 


Those who 
suspects 



For feminine gender: 



(Case) 



Nominative (*ljJI il'li) 



Singular 



One who 
suspects 



** * 

i>^ 



Accusative ( 



Oi) 



Genitive (Jil illi.) 



a!1£ 

One who 
suspects 



One who 



Those two 
who suspects 



Plural 



Those two 
who suspects 



Those two 



suspects who suspects 



Those who 
suspects 

Those who 

suspects 



Those who 
suspects 



306 



35: Active Participle 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Examples: 

"The sending down of the Book is from Allah, the A 11- 
Mighty, the All-Wiser (39:1) 

"And no bearer of burden will bear the burden of another." 
(39:7) 

"Is he w/zo devoutly prostrates and s/ara/s (/or worship) 
during the hours of night, being cautious of the hereafter, 
and hopes for the mercy of his Fosterer (equal to one 
who does not do this)?" (39:9) 

"For those who do good in this world is good and the 
earth of Allah is vast. Only those who are patient will be 
paid back their reward without measure." (39:10) 

"No, then serve Allah and be among those who are 
gratefuir (39:66) 



307 35; Active Participle 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"Allah is the Creator of everything and He is a Trustee 
over everytling." (39:62) 

"And those vho do not believe in the signs of Allah, those 
are the perse >ns who are the losers:' (39:63) 

"Say, Then do you advise me to worship (something) 
other than Allah, O you ignorant peopled (39:64) 

"So he sougiit the protective forgiveness of his Fosterer 
and fell down bowing and turned (to Allah)." (38:24) 

"When (horses of high breed, which were) still when 
standing and swift while running, were presented to him 
in the evening." (38:31) 

A » f'S * \ %' '** vf > n ' *Y-1\ 

"Strike with your foot, this (water which thereby gushes 
out, is for a) cool hath and a drink." (38:42) 

A • *'V\'" ><"'«» i< rV/4\ 

"Or do they say, fc (He is) a poet, for whom we are waiting 
for an accident of time?'" (52:30) 



i 



308 35; Active Participle 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Jj\ <3A23i <Z»±& <L»y% 



> r-t 



"Those who repent, who serve (Him), vho praise (Him), 
who fast, who how down, who prostra e themselves, who 
enjoin that which is recognised (as good) and stop 
(people) from that which is not recogn sed (as good) and 
those who protect (themselves by rem. lining within) the 
limits (imposed by ) Allah; so convey the good news to 
the believers (described above)/' (9: 1 11';) 

"No! They say, 'Confused dreams, he forged it, he is a 
poet,' so let him bring to us a sign like that which was 
sent through the earlier (prophets)." (21 :5) 

"Then perhaps you will kill yourself wu i grief sorrowing 
after them." (18:6) 

"They said, These two are surely magi zians™ (20:63) 

"And those who are active in giving charity (za/cat)" 
(23:4) 

309 5: Active Participle 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



'(Other) faces that Day will be happy r (88:8) 



'Herein ycu will not hear useless talk." (88:1 1) 



310 35: Active Participle 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 36 




THE PASSIVE PARTICIPLE 

• ' \ - ° * ° 

We have seen that ^ JyilUI, simple objeci bears the action of 
the verb. But the passive participle JjAllil pi follows the 
pattern or jjii». 

Jii -> J)*ii - Done 
«£» -» fjiii - Opened 
Ji>- -> J>ji£- - Created 
i^ -^ \j*$- ~ Gathered 
lit -» fS^* ~~ Known 



311 



36: Passive Participle 



Learning Arabic Language of the QURAN 



For masculine gerder: 



(Case) 


3jjLa 

Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


Nominative (joj-'i 5J'b-) 


Done 


(two) Done 


(all) Done 


Accusative (^^il *Jli) 


Done 


(two) Done 


(all) Done 


Genitive (jil aJU ) 


Done 


(two) Done 


(all) Done 



For feminine gender: 



(Case) 


3^ : 

Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


Nominative (*l^l 3JU-) 


Done 


(two) Done 


(all) Done 


Accusative ((^^..1 iili) 


Done 


(two) Done 


(all) Done 


Genitive (jjil lili ) 


Done 


(two) Done 


c-j i yum 

(all) Done 



312 



36; Passive Participle 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Examples: 






"The Jews say, 'Allah's hand is tied uf ' Their hands be tied 
up and they be cursed because of what ti ley say. No! Both His 
hands are spread out, He spends as He vills." (5:64) 



* ''?f sli' s 



4 zy-Stt^Jf 

"And the promised Day." (85:2) 

"And the witness and the witnessed" (85:3) 

"Therein are raised couches. " (88: 13 



*m 



"And drinking cups placed ready (for use)." (88: 14) 
"And cushions se/ in rows." (88: 1 5) 
"And carpets spread." (88: 16) 

"All w/// 6e gathered at the appointed time on the known 
Day." (56:50) 

313 36; Passive Participle 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



The passive part cipie of hamzated verbs (on the pattern of JH 
JUL and \y) anc assimilated verbs (on the pattern of 3s~j and 
yS) will also be )n the pattern of J^xAi. 

j£t ^ j^u- Eaten 

jll -> J UL« - Asked 

1^ -> Sj ^ - Read 

Promised 

Feasible 

HOLLOW VERBS- ^V 

When the second radical is the weak letter j, as in J IS then its 
passive participle will be in the form J^i*. 

For masculine gender: 



^ - <? ? o - 



(Case) 


Singular 


Dual 


Plural i 


Nominative (*-^ *J^) 


Said 


(two) Said 


■* 9 

(all) Said 


Accusative (^^aSJl XJli) 


Said 


°1 o £ -- 

(two) Said 


(all) Said 


Genitive (ji-\ &li) 


Said 


(two) Said 


(all) Said 



314 



36; Passive Participle 



— Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



For feminine gender: 






^j** 






Nominative (*3$ i illi) 



Accusative (< r ^£i\ iJU.) 



Genitive (Jil iJli) 



ft.*- 
Said 



tut* 
Said 



-To£- 

Said 






(two) Said 



(two) Said 



2?j 



(all) Said 



(all) Said 



(two) Said 



(all) Said 



When the second radical is the weak letter <j, as in £ U then its 
passive participle will 1 

For masculine gender: 



passive participle will be in the form *La. 



(Case) 


IllSiilll 

Singular 


||;|iH|HSlll; 


e 

Plural 


Nominative (*3jM 4JU-) 


Sold 


(two) Sold 


(all) Sold 


Accusative (t-^isJI illi) 


Sold 


0^0 ^ 

(two) Sold 


(all) Sold 


Genitive Qi-I illi) 


s 

Sold 


(two) Sold 


(all) Sold 



315 



36: Passive Participle 



For feminine gender: 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



(Case) 


Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


Nominative (*ij.\ aj^) 


$ ^ 

Sold 


(two) Sold 


(all) Sold 


Accusative {^J^lW *j\*») 


Sold 


^ ^ ,» 

(two) Sold 


(all) Sold 


Genitive (ji\ &U-) 


Sold 


(two) Sold 


(all) Sold 



DEFECTIVE VERBS -^|iiU 

When the third radical is the weak letter j or ^, the JyLO ilNl 
will be in the folk wing form: 

Ico -» j>y--l>> -> ^c-li -Called 
J5 ^ ^.y* -» ^ - Thrown 
-|j -> ^li -» ^b - Met 
DOUBLE LETTERED VERBS -L^libXI 

Doubled letter verbs also have their passive particle of the form 

j£ -> jjiiL^ - Suspected 



316 



36: Passive Participle 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Examples: 

"The Day when mankind will be like scattered moths." 
(101:4) 



"May be that your Fosterer will raise you to a praised 
position." (17:79) 

"So that He made them like rafew wp straw <husK)T (105:5) 

"And drinking cups placed ready (for us^)." (88:14) 

"And cushions ser /« rows." (88: 1 5) 

"Allah sets forth a similitude: a slave / wafer someone's 
control r (\ 6:1 5) 

"And evil will be the place of presentation and /Aase 
presented:' (11:98) 

317 36 Passive Participle 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



'That is the Day on which mankind will be gathered and 
that is the Day which will be witnessed" (1 1:103) 

"Except as your Fosterer wills, a gift without break." 
(11:108) 

"And We will certainly pay them back in full their 
portion without reduction" (1 1:109) 



31 8 36; Passive Participle 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 37 




VERBAL NOUK 



The source from which all the nouns and verbs a *e derived is called 
jjJsull. Verbal noun is a type of noun which can bear the article 
Jl or tanwin (^y5/-~ — ) and can be declined according to the 
sentence i.e nominative, accusative and genitive case. 
Example: 

"Why do the rabbis and the priests not forbid them from 
their sinful speech and their eating the orbidden? Evil is 
the work which they do." (5:63) 

"Turn towards Allah with sincere repentance." (66:8) 



J^j>~&y~£l}\ rtK^Ltot d j*-* $a j U ^Sy lj 



(Jt ^>- 



r 



\3bU 



f^jj?^ 



319 



37; Verbal Noun 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"Feed ten indigent persons, on a scale of the average for 
the food of your families; or feed ten poor persons with 
the normal food with which you feed your own people or 
clothe them or set free a slave." (5:89) 

The following an the nouns and verbs derived from the jlXi\. 

♦ Verbs - J^ 

♦ Active Particiole - Jc-lIJl jLl\ 

♦ Passive Participle - J^ilill jL4 

♦ Noun for place and time - Q?J&& ^-1 

♦ Noun for instrument - SJ^jLlj 

♦ Comparative, Superlative - J~f^ ^A 

♦ Adjective - Zj-^\ ^\ 

♦ Elative - ^iJllli f-^1 

The verbal forms are not governed by a certain rule as they are 
Jrlll (accepted by hearing, tradition). 



320 37: Verbal Noun 



— Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



The following patterns are used in the Holy Qur^an: 







& 






Example From the Holy Qur'an 



"So his soul willed for him, the murder of his 
brother, he thus killed him and thereby became one 
of the losers." (5:30) 



Siii 



^^Jj^l^3 



"Polytheism is certainly a great injustice" (31:1 3) 



l £j^ Uj^Jl3j: 



''And (they) say, 'Our hearts are coverings.'" (2:88) 



"We have indeed created man in hardship" (90:4) 



^ Jo ^ Jo ^^aJk fe /XrJ 



"And they came with false blood on hi s shirt." (12:18) 






"Guidance (in it) for those who guard (against evil)." 
(2:2) 



"So I took a handful from the footstep of the 
Messenger." (20:96) 



321 



37; Verbal Noun 



= Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Alii 



4_Ui 






The i that is an unfair division" (53:22) 



"Whi n you were on the nearer side (of the valley)." 
(8:42 ) 



Alii 



\ ^ -^ * - -* w -' " / 

"Then (he should effect a) ransom by fasting or 
(giving) charity r (2:196) 



<LL*3 



* > ' \> *<'* 






"And perfected is the word of your Fosterer." (6:1 15) 



& 



"It is nothing but a reminder for the worlds." (6:90) 



J^ 



"So, that ca// of theirs did not cease." (21:15) 



& 



"O good newsl here is a youth." (12:19) 



o*>^ 



: uL>i tjLJa^ ^^j^ (jic^^ ^-J ^i>^ 



"And when Musa returned to his people, a/?gry and 
grieved." (7:150) 



322 



37: Verbal Noun 



0%i 



O&j 



J& 



aui 






Ulij 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



AJU3 



J^ 



"We hear and we obey, (we seek) Your protective 
forgiveness our Fosterer and towards You is the 
destination." (2:285) 



4 siuji; ij^sffiffi '*%$ 

"And He has made infidelity and transgression and 
disobedience (items of) dislike to you." (49:7) 



"And We have the power on its re moval" (23:18) 



"Yet is he the most rigid in opposit ion." (2:204) 

"He (Dawood) said, 'He has been unjust to you Z?y 
demanding your ewe.'" (38:24) 



"^ (declaration) of immunity from Allah and His 
Messenger." (9:1) 



"Do you make (one who) gives rfr/wA to pilgrims." (9:19) 



*4 <^> 



4 yj^ JJi o?^ gfi* & 

"Before the rising of the sun and before its setting." 
(50:39) 



323 37 '.* Verbal Noun 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Sy* 



&** 









"So her Fosterer accepted her with a good acceptance." 

(3:37) 



"We made you a party more numerous." (17:6) 



ii# 4ij 



2¥T 



"And of the cattle some are for carrying burden and 
some for slaughter (food)." (6:142) 



Note: The pattern Slii is called rpl jLll. It is used to specify 
the number of times an act is committed. 

There is a kind of- j jJ&2\ - called - ^Lllj.l^^U 
Its pattern can be - Ji_Lo — J*ii — Jiii 

"My Fosterer! Cause me to enter the entrance of truth." 
(17:80) 

"And cause me to exit the ex/7 of truth." (17:80) 



cii: 



':^- :r>-^ 



-j 



^ 



"They will stay therein; excellent will be the dwelling 
place/time/(;r staying" (25:76) 



324 



37; Verbal Noun 



Learning Arabic Language of the GUR'AN 




Chapter 38 




TRI LITERAL DERIVED VERB 

The verb in which there is an increase in letter or letters is called: 

J5&1 jbp jliJL 

Letters are added to the tri-literal root verbs (J^lJI ^JS\ J^O to 
increase the vocabulary and to fulfill the demands of the language. 

Due to the increase in letters to the tri-literal root verb in the 
form of prefixes, suffixes and infixes, derived verbs are formed 
and their meaning can be: 

♦ Similar to the root 

♦ Changed from transitive to intransitive, etc. 
For example: the root verb JiS is "to kill". 

♦ By adding a long vowel alif, M' after <3 of JiS, the derived verb 
J5U is formed and gives the meaning "to fight another person". 

♦ If the second radical of this verb is doubled it will become 
J£s which means "he massacred". 



325 



38; Triliteral Derived Verb 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



There are 15 forms of verbs. The three lettered form J*i which 
is the root, is considered as the first form. The other 14 forms 
are the derivatives of the first form. 

Form I: Jii, J*s, jiS 

With the addition of one letter to the first form of the verb, the 
following verbs are derived. 

Form II ; Jii 

Form III : JilS 

Form IV : Jiil 

With the addition of two letters to the first form of the verb, the 
following verbs are derived. 

Form V : Jil5 

Form VI : jiUS 

Form VII : jil^ 

Form VIII : J^il 

Form IX : Jii} 

With the addition of three letters to the first form of the verb, the 
following verbs are derived. 

Form X : Jiiil} 

Form XI : jliil 

4-letter root verbs: ljFV^ V^ J**^ ^AJ^ 

Form XII : J& 

Form XIII : jj£15 

Form XIV : jliil 

Form XV : jiiiil 

326 38.* Triliteral Derived Verb 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 







Chapter 39 




Form II -<J** 

It is formed from the tri-literal root by doubling the second 
radical. The imperfect tense (£jUa_Ul) sign of this pattern will 
bear a dammah (.JL.). 

Table of J*S: 



Tense 


Imperfect 

\fTpnse-;;- 


Imper- 
atwe 


Verbal 
Noun 


lllllllllill 

Participle 


Passive 
Participle 


f|:i|||;; 

Passive 


Imperfect 
Passive 


& 


J*-^ 


& 




J«i 


Jiii 


^ ^ } i 2 ' ^ 9 


fr 


p- 


fr 


A-sl*J 


9%' > 







Points to note: 

1. Some words of this form have a causative meaning. For 
example: 

To know To teach (to cause someone to know) 



327 



39; Form II 



========-=== Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 

"And He taught Adam all names, then He presented 
them (things) before the angels." (2:31) 

2. This form ma} be adopted to strengthen the meaning. An act 
is done with grea violence or continued for a longer duration. 

To cut 1 o cut into pieces 

To kill To massacre 

3. To shorten: Some verbs of this form give the complete sense 
of a sentence. 

jS ~ To say ^Allahu Akbar" 

£11 - To say ^SubhanAllahT 

4. To change from intransitive (fj^Ul) to transitive (&j££ill). 
Words that are intransitive in form I become transitive in form II. 

To sleep To put to sleep 

5. Same meaning as in tri-literal. 

In this form the meaning of the derived verb is the same as the root. 

To change To change 

32 8 39: Forrn II 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"Then those who were unjust changed the word to other 
than what was said to them." (2:59) 

6. Verbs formed from nouns. 

Some verbs in this form are made from nouns. 

3yi - To make a Jew. (from the noun J;^J meaning Jew) 

y^L> -To make a Christian, (from the noun fj,\y^> meaning 
Christian) 

7. Totally new meaning are given to the derived form. For 
example: 

" * " x - ? - 

To mock To subjugate 

"Glorified be He Who has subjected these to us (for our 
use) and we were not able to do it." (43:13) 

To roast To pray 

To injure To speak 

8. To make the passive voice of this form, in the past perfect 
tense, the first radicle is given dammah JL and the second 

329 39: Form II 



= Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



radicle is given kasra. Whereas, in the imperfect tense the 
sign of £jUaiH will bear damma, and the second radicle 
will bear fatha. 

The verbal noun (j 1^131) in the defective verbs (J4&\ J*^0 

will be on the pattern of ^1*11 

For example: ,33 -> ^y 
Table of Sj t0 purify, to clean. 



Past 
Tense 


Imperfect 
Tense 


Imper- 
ative 


Verbal 
Noun 


Active 
Participle 


Passive 
Participle 


Past 
Passive 


Imperfect 
Passive 


& 


s 


% 


"^Sy> 


%i 


5y» 


& 


& 



"And save me from Fira'wn and his work and save me 
from the unjust people." (66:1 1) 

4 Sit ^i 1 ^ ;Uj^>j rp-W-? r*-^f 

"He (the devd) promises them and exczfes va//7 rfes/res in 
them, and the devil does not promise them (anything) 
but deception "(4:120) 
Note: There are some verbs which are not defective but their 
verbal noun (jlii) is also on the pattern of ii*A3. 

Example: 



330 



39; Form II 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Examples: 

"He recites to them His signs and purifies them and 
teaches them the book (the law) and the wisdom." (62:2) 

"And recite the Qur'an gradually (giving) intervals." 

(73:4) 

"So he neither accepted the truth nor worshipped (offered 
salat)!" (75:31) 



"But denied and turned back!" (75:32) 

"And (remember) when We delivered you from the people 
ofFira , wn."(2:49) 

\ 4 W^ '&$? ^P" k > 

"The squanderers are certainly the brothers of the devils," 
(17:27) 

331 39; *Y>/w // 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"Whatever is in the skies and the Earth glorifies Allah." 
(57:1) 

"Glorify the name of your Fosterer, the Most High." (87:1) 

"But Allah has made the belief (an item of) love for you 
and He has beautified it in your hearts, and He has made 
infidelity and transgression and disobedience (items of) 
dislike to you. " (49:7) 

"No, he has come with the truth and confirms the 
messengers (who had come before him)." (37:37) 

"Inform me w ith knowledge if you are truthful." (6:143) 



332 39; Form II 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 40 




Form III- <j^Li 



The form Jill is constructed by adding alif (\)\n between the 

first radical ds> and second radical 9 . The imperfect tense sign of 
this pattern bears dammah on it. 

Table of Jill: 



Past 
Tense 


Imperfect 
Tense 


Imper- 
ative 


Verbal 
Noun 


Participle 


Passive 
Participle 


Past 
Passive 


Imperfect 
Passive 


JEli 


&H 


j?tf 


^ic-lii 


Jjflli 


j£l^ 


J^ 


j^ 


jas 


££ 


Jtf 




Jjlij. 






j^ 



To make the past passive voice, the general rule is followed but 
the alif ( I ) in between will be changed to j. 

Example: 



333 



40; Fotwi /// 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Points to note: 

1. Verbs of this form usually show an action being done with 
another (person or group). Hence it is always a transitive verb. 

JiS - To kill 

JSlS- To fight 






"And how many of the prophets fought (in the way of 
Allah) with whom there were many devoted men." (3:146) 

Sometimes verbs of this form might have a complete new 
meaning from their tri-literal root. For example: 

iljS - To kneel down / lie down 

iljU - To bless 



^ %&:& *4k%£ ig£^% 



"The neighborhood of which We have blessed, that We 
might show him (some) of Our signs." (17:1) 

The verbal noun of a defective verb (Jo$&\ j*iil) will be on the 

pattern of iltplAi. 

Example: 



Past 
Tense 



Imperfect 
Tense 



JS 



•S% 



Imper- 
ative 



•^ 



Noun 



IvsSU 



Active 
Participle 



s& 



Passive 
Participle 



jbii 



Past 
Passive 



Impei 



&> 



$% 



334 



40.- Form III 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Examples: 

"I was expecting that I would certainly encounter my 
account (of deeds)." (69:20) 

"And fight with them till there is no persecution." (2:193) 

"Fighting is prescribed for you and it is (a matter of) 
dislike for you." (2:216) 

"So now associate with them, and seek what Allah hath 
ordained for you." (2:187) 

"For that there is the garden for them, they fight in the 
wayofAllah."(9:lll) 

"And whoever strives, he strives on ly for (the benefit of) 
his own soul." (29:6) 



*& 4 j^ic? ^^UiJ^ ^ # 



335 40; /w/n /// 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"Did you not consider him who argued with Ibrahim 
about his Fosterer?" (2:258) 

"And there are those who chose the mosque to cause 
harmr (9:107) 

"When the hypocrites come to you." (63:1) 

"I do not intend to go towards that from which T (myself) 
forbid you." (11:88) 



336 40: Form III 



» Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 41 




Form IV -'S**\ 

The form Jilt is made by prefixing hamza ( \ ) with fatha (_i.) 

to the root form Jii. This hamza ( \ ) is not the ftamza of joining 

(J^>j)\ Ijli), as in the other forms hence it is always pronounced. 

The imperfect sign of this pattern bears dammah on it. 

'' •? 
Table of J*ii: 



Past 
Tense 


Imperfect 
Tense 


Imper- 
ative 


Verbal 
Noun 


Participle 


Passive 
Participle 


Past 
Passive 


Imperfect 
Passive 




jA? 


o of- 


Sty 


9 o > 


jiii 


- °f 

J** 


jA? 


jJu,f 


J l J 


jxf 


fSq 


i? 1 o > 


*_Ll^o 


j4^* 


fli4 



Points to note: 

1. Some words of this form have a causative meaning. For 
example: 

t:^- To go out ^^U- To drive out 

JjS- To descend jjtf - To take or bring down 



337 



41: Form IV 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"And We have sent it down in reality and it has come 
down in reality, and We have not sent you but as a 
conveyer of ; ;ood news and a warner." (17:105) 

2. Some Transitive verbs (^liiDl) are made from the 
intransitive verbs (f jSUl). 

Example: 

J^-o - To enter Jiol - To make to enter 

(^ - To forget ^S\ - To make to forget 

^jfc i - To go C-jfcil - To remove 

"Praise is due only for Allah Who has removed grief 
from us." (35:34) 

3. Sometimes verbs of this form might have a complete new 
meaning from their tri-literal root. For example: 

JoJ> - To cut Js>j$\ - To lend 

^ - He met Jul - To cast down, to fling 

/ \{^^ i << *- -m ? > -- i v 

"Ifj/ow loan to Allah a good loan." (64:17) 

338 41; Form /K 



Learning Arabic Language of the QURAN 



"He said, ' You throw (first): So when they threw. .."(7:116) 

4. Some verbs of this form are from nouns. 

fL^> - Morning rCjJ\ - To enter upon morning 
JLUi - evening ^^S\ - To enter into evening 
^fjp - Forenoon J^>\ - To enter into forenoon 

5. In hollow verbs, the verbal noun will be on the pattern o\ZS&i\. 
Example: 



111 -^ iilll 



r 



Table of VS\ to establish, to straighten: 




6. In defective verbs, the verbal noun will be on the pattern of 
Example: To establish, to straighten 

Table of jjf: 



jiilj 



jj» 



•ct 



"ense Tense 






Imper- 
ative 



~?y 



Verbal 






p-IajS 



/te/m? 



^-2jA 



Passive 






<3j* 



Past 
Passive 



Imperfect 
Passive 



&y 



<3*> 



339 



41 : Form /K 



— — — __ =aa==Bi= Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 
Examples: 

4 \l& zzi jam p^\r^p\y^%\ 

"And do not say to one who offers you peace, (or 
salutation), "You are not a believer.'" (4:94) 

'Their hearts (being involved) in pastime. And those 
who are unjust talk in secret" (21:3) 

"And We sent before you only men." (21:7) 

"And delivered them and him whom We willed and We 
destroyed those who committed excesses." (21:9) 



"And JFe produced after them other people." (21:11) 
"Whenever ///ey iv/7/ intend \o go out from it." (22:22) 

4^ f ^^^Aft 

"But Allah has made trade lawful and prohibited usury " 
(2:275) 

340 41; Form IV 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"And do not fee extravagant, He certainly does not like 
//zose >v/zo are extravagant '." (7:31) 

"Allah directs you concerning your children." (4:1 1) 

"When his Fosterer said to him (Ibrahim), 'Submit: He 
replied, 7 submit before the Fosterer of the worlds.'" 
(2:131) 



341 4\: Form IV 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




342 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



S^%3 






fj& 




rik 


vfe> ¥K-:"-y^ 


Chapter 42 | 


fey 


^\7d) 


■;•■' ■: . :. . ■• 


^>J>* 


ir' 


FontiV-ijkflj 




It is formed by adding 6 to form II: jlS. 




Table of JJuu: 







!iiii^^lM 



-"'• • 



.fti '■ - 



Ji2 



fla 



* Z> ' *> •" 



aAjCo 



atfve 



JiiS 



fla 



Vmbd , : y Metiye 
Participle 



* £ ' s 

J«5 



P* 



Passive 
Participle 



&& 






J*l£i 



AjCLa 



1H11 

Passive 



Imperfect 
Passive 



J^ 



& 



J*^? 






Points to note: 

1. JJUS is the reflexive form of jJU. Here the action relates 
back to the doer. For example: 

lie -To teach jJiiS -To learn. 

j)ji - To separate J£aS - To be separated. 

ill -To make spacious illS - To become spacious 



343 



42; Firm V 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



4 o^i^ v^i \JxHjh ^ Jj \ify 

"When it is said to you 'Make room in assemblies'" 
(58:11) 

"And remember the name of your Fosterer and devote 
yourself to Him (with exclusive) devotion." (73:8) 
2. Verbs made from nouns. 



if- 



|J] - Sin plS - To shun away from sin 

3. Verbs which indicate gradual action. 

fcj* ~ To swallow, to sip ysl - To drink sip by sip 

"He will drink it little by little but he will not be able to 
swallow it.'' (14:17) 

4. Verbs with complete new meaning 

^ - To injure ( 0^ - To speak 

ol^ - To .peak the truth Jl^S - To give charity/alms 

"And the men who give charity and the women who give 
charity " (3? :35) 

344 42; For/M F 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Examples: 

"And those who die among you and le; ve behind wives." 
(2:234) 

"And do not long for those (articles) in which Allah has 
been more gracious to some gifts." 4:1 2) 

"That Allah may protect you from (e> ery) sin of yours 
which you (could) send in advance" (48:2) 



"And hold together (and be united) through the rope of 
Allah and do not be divided:' (3: 103) 

"And on the Day the hour of doom w 11 be established, 
on that Day they will be divided" (30: 1 4) 

"Our Fosterer! And accept my prayer." (14:40) 



345 42; /w/w K 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"Our I osterer! Accept from us, You are certainly the 
All-Hearing, the All-Knowing." (2:127) 

"He who gives his wealth for his self purification" 
(92:18 



346 42: Form V 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




*K. 





. 


■.-.■.: ; 


■\? ; -v/.'^- y. '-v ■;■■-■.■■ ';'.:;•■ ■ ; 


Chapter 43 


..':■_ ■::;^';.:, : ;y. 


■■ •■■■:, ■•; : =■. ■■.•■ 


• • 


■■■ ; . ;■. •■.- 




&* 



Form VI -3^^ 

If the prefix o is added to form III (JtVs) it becomes JcAU 
Table of JcliS: 



Past 
Tense 


Imperfect 
Tense 


Imper- 


Verbal 


Active 
Participle 


Passive 
Participle 


lissii 

Passive 


Imperfect 


JEU: 


Jc-iiHj 


Jp115 


J^U5 


ApIILo 


Jiliii 


Js^ 




iljUS 


i£U£ 


iljU3 


5^U5 








-^ 



Points to note: 

1. Words of this form usually show an action being done with 
another (person or group). 

Qy» - To fight ^j\J~- To fight each other 

0j£ - To help C)j\ju - To co-operate/to help one another 

2. When ^ comes in the place of third radical J. 



347 



43; Form VI 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Example: 

jl^L - To turn away from 

Table of jl£: 



Past 
Tense 


Imperfect 
Tense 


Imper- 
ative 


Verbal 
Noun 


Participle 


Passive 
Participle 


Past 
Passive 


Imperfect 
Passive 


S4 


lS^^ 


J»X£ 


lJISL 


lJI^I^ 


jUtii 




l$W4? 



*>> >> 



"Their sides Aee/? away from their beds." (32:16) 

^ sAL^s r>r^ 'j^jy ' J i^ 

"When ?/zey mutually agree to it in a recognized (good 
manner)." (2:232) 



Examples: 



"And do not find fault (among) yourselves, nor call (one 
another) by nicknames." (49:1 1) 

"And help one another in righteousness and guarding 
(against evil)." (5:2) 



348 



43: Form VI 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



• 'SK.' "' rr ** s ; 



"And recommend to one another, the truth, and 
recommend to one another, patience/' (103:3) 

"So let those who wish to put in conscious effort, put in 
a conscious effort for that," (83:26) 

^ &$£ ^-r U^ fyj fe 

"And when they passed by them they used to wink at 
one another." (83:30) 

"And if you had made a mutual appointment, you would 
have gone against the appointment." (8:42) 

"And you would have disputed about the affair." (8:43) 



"But when the two groups came in sight of each other he 
turned upon his heels." (8:48) 

"Then they turned, some blaming the others." (68:30) 



349 43; /w/m K/ 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




350 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 44 




Form VH-jkai] 

The form Jill} is constructed by prefixing £-1 to the tri-literal root. 
Table of JilSj: 



Pay/ 
Tense 


Imperfect 
Tense 


Imper- 

0V0 




Participle 


Passive 
Participle 


Passive 


Imperfect 

: :P00^>\ 


J#i 




fc*l 


fel 


J*lii 


- 


- 


- 






LPi 


jlix-aS} 


(? -;o ^ 


- 


- 


- 



"So twelve springs gushed out from it." (2:60) 

Points to note: 

1. Sometimes verbs of this form might have a complete new 
meaning from their tri-literal root. 

jiU - To be freed from bond 

JJJa^i - To proceed/to depart 



351 



44; Fo/tw VII 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



2. The transitive root verb is changed to intransitive in this 
form of the verb. 

yS - To break j^=^\ ~ To be broken 

ftj^l - To cut iJ^i - To be cut off 

^ - To cleave/dig j^\ - To § ush out 

Examples: 



"When the sky is cleft asunder." (82:1) 

& \^£> b^S> biS\ AJU C^^Wj^ 

'Thus twelve springs gushed out from it" (7:160) 

"Would not have left off (falsehood) till the clear proof 
had come lo them." (98:1) 



» ^ ^> s s 



'* ■* < 



"Your sight iv/// retard to you defeated (in its purpose) 
and it will be tired." (67:4) 

"(It will be said to them), 'Proceed towards that which 
you used to deny.'" (77:29) 



352 44; Form VII 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 45 




Form VIII - \££H 



Verbs of this form are made by prefixing \ and infixing o after 
J to JiS thus forming JiHiL 

Table of Jiiii: 



Past 
Tense 


Imperfect 
Tense 


Imper- 
ative 


Verbal 
Noun 


Participle 


Passive 
Participle 


Past 
Passive 


Imperfect 
Passive 








JUcll 


9 ,. ° } 




dd 


9 ^ ^ o > 




|0.^"^r 




f^5^1 


jL^Ek 


^QMS^al^- 


> 





Po/wfs fo note; 

1. To choose/do something for oneself. For example: 

'$ - To weigh, to measure jlHS] - To receive by 

measure from 



CSS- To 



earn 



CJL&\ - To gain for oneself 



353 



45; Form VIII 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



do^J^iu:^ J^ iyl^U^ouli^ 



"Those who, when they take by measure from other 
people, the -- take in full." (83:2) 

2. Sometimes vtrbs of this form might have a complete new 
meaning from their tri-literal root. 

y^> - To ielp j^£\ - To take revenge 

Vjr^ - To strike C /J ^o\ - To be disturbed 

YJ>- - To deprive of Yj*\ ~ To respect 

3. The tri-literal oot and this form have the same meaning. 

p- Jo - To originate Pj^i ~ ^° i nven t 

CJ£ -To be near/to approach C/j3\-To come close/be nigh 

"Closer and closer to mankind comes their Reckoning." 
(21:1) 

4. If the first radical o is one of the emphatic letters (j^, ^ J?, 
J?) then the o of Jiiil will be changed to "J?". 

Example: 

To be or become clear To choose 

To strike To be disturbed/confused 

354 45: Form VIII 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



To ascend/appear To look upon/look down/to descend 
Examples: 

"Allah certainly selected Adam and Nuh " (3:33) 

"(Someone will) say, 'Would you peep (to see him)?'" 

(37:54) 

"So he WxWpeep, then see him in the midst of Hell." (37:55) 

"Is the unseen disclosed to him or has he made an 
agreement with the Beneficent (Allah)?" (19:78) 

"Except that you become helpless by necessity to (eat) 
it." (6:119) 

5. If the first radical o is ^ or j the o of ^cl\ will change to :>. 

Example: 

S\j -> SISji - To increase /grow larger 

JiS -^ J^S} - To enter 

355 45; Form VIII 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



6. If the first radical is i, then the o of Jiil) will be changed 
to ^ and the i will be assimilated. 

Jpi - To mention -> jp ls\ -> J>1\ - To remember 

"But is there anyone who will mind?" (54: 1 7) 

7. If the first radical is hamza, then it will change to o. 

j£I -> iicSi -> liil-Totake 

"The likeness of those who have taken guardians besides 
Allah." (29:4 1) 

8. If the weak letter j comes in place of l3, the first radical, 
the j will change to o and the pattern will be as shown in 
the example. 

Table of J*a5). to communicate, to connect: 



Past 
Tense 


Imperfect 
Tense 


Imper- 
ative 


Verbal 
Noun 


Participle 


Passive 
Participle 


Past 
Passive 


Imperfect 
Passive 


&k 




J^i 


<JUa!i 


Jw^ii 


s^ 




> ^ $* 
d-^ 



9. When the final radical is ^ as in the case of (£-$, the verb in 
this form will be J&Si. 



356 



45; Form VIII 



Table of ^JlsJt to meet: 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Past 
Tense 


Imperfect 
Tense 


imper- 
atxve 


Verbal 
Noun 


Active 
Participle 


Passive 
Participle 


Past 
Passive 


Imperfect 
Passive 


a 




Cr- 





i\jb}\ 


&1* 


J:UJ> 








"On the day the two armies met" (3:155) 

10. In doubly weak verb where j comes in place of l3 and ^s 
in place of J as in J,J, the j will change to o to make Ju\. 



Table of J^i to save one self: 








Past 
Tense 


Imperfect 
Tense 


Imper- 
ative 


Verbal 
Noun 


Active | Passive 
Participle] Participle 


Past 
Passive 


Imperfect 
Passive 


3\ 


°& 




sXjlj\ 


* > t $ > 


.... _. ...^. 


'6* 



"So that you may save yourselves (from the punishment)." 
(2:21) 

Examples: 

"So the waters met for (the execution of) an affair 
already programmed." (54: 12) 



357 



45; Form K/// 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"And for you therein, will be what your souls desire 
for." (41:31) 



OyfJ^l lit* Jy^^r^ 

"And flesh of birds from that which they desired (56:21) 



"And the good and the evil are not equal" (41 :34) 

"And they cannot mediate except for him (with whom) 
He is pleased "(2\:28) 

"And (there are) others who have acknowledged their 
sins." (9:102) 

"So that the torrent bears (on its surface) a swelling 
foam." (13:17) 

"And hold together (and be united) through the rope of 
Allah." (3:103) 

"Gets every good that it earns, and it suffers every ill 
that it earns" (2:286) 

"Except he who takes in the hollow of his hand." (2:249) 
358 45; Form VIII 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 46 




Form IX-££a1 

Prefixing \ and doubling the J makes J_ii) This form is used 
only to express colors and defects. 

Table of J*ii: 



Past 
Tense 


Imperfect 
Tense 


Imperative 


Verbal 
Town 


Active 
Participle 


fel 




J^i/J^i 


h4\ 


J*^ 


>\ 


^ „ 0- 




y*h\ 


°j 



As this form of verb is intransitive (fjSLli jjti) there will be no 
passive participle and passive voice. 

Example: 

j£>\ - To become white 

Sill - To become black 



359 



46; Form IX 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



y*J&\ ~ To become yellow 
y!aL-\ -To become green 
Examples: 

"Then as for those whose faces will be black." (3:106) 

"And as for those whose faces will be white" (3:107) 

# 9_>>tJi -sCS-^ *^ ^^L? # 

"And his eyes became white due to grief." (12:84) 



360 46; Form IX 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 47 



a 

Form X- J^/i ( aA 

It is formed by prefixing £~1\ to Jii. 

Table of Jilil}: 




Pas/ 



Imperfect 
Tense 



Imper- 
ative 



Verbal 
Noun 



Active 
Participle 



Passive 
Participle 



Past 
Passive 



Imperfect 
Passive 



\k£L\ 






JUiilJ 



JJ-a3 -a 



IjuiX^A 



AaJll^I 






y^ 



*l<! 



^A*X 



uAiii 



Points to note: 

1 . The main characteristic of this form is that it often expresses 
the seeking, asking or demanding as expressed in the root 
form. 



'Jai. - To pardon 
0}\ - To permit 
lie* - To know 
f^ - To help 



\icl\ - To ask for pardon 
OiliL} - To ask for permission 
iLiilj. - To seek knowledge 
j^sL\ - To seek help 
361 47: Form X 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



2. This form indicates a certain quality which a person may or 
may not have. 

Example: 

'<&£> - To bo great «£«:,'] - To regard as great 

y]> - To be generous %JslL\ - To regard as generous 
<j-ic>. - To be good ^L^cL\ - To regard as good 

3. This form is tho reflexive of the form IX Jil}. 

J^l - To in brm J^^i - To seek or gather information 
iLli - To give up/to deliver ILLLII - To surrender 



4. When ^ comet in place of J as in JjiiLL} then the pattern 
observed as beiow: 

Table of ^Jiill - To ask for legal opinion: 



is 



Pas/ 
Tense 



Imperfect 
Tense 



Imper- 
ative 



Verbal 
Noun 



Active Passive 
Participle Participle 



Past 
Passive 



Imperfect 
Passive 



JH^; 



JH 1 ^ 



^^ 



^QjalL^! 



GH 1 ^ 



Examples: 



A^ iU -JClJ 



"You Alone do we serve and (from) You Alone do we 
seek help." (I A) 



362 



47; Form X 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"Only those will respond, who listen " (6:36) 

"Respond to your Fosterer before the coming of the Day 
from Allah, for which there is no turning back." (42:47) 



"Let them also, with a will, Zis/e/i to My call, and 
believe in Me." (2:186) 

"But if they do not respond to you." (28:50) 

4 -Ji* 1 ^ ^ dj^^cSSy } 



4 I would have had abundance of good." (7:1 88) 



4 flSLd & 






y'Vj^ > 



-us 



"And covered themselves with garments and persisted 
(in refusing) and considered themselves great (due to) 
pride." (71:7) 

"And I did seek to make him yield himself to me but he 
abstained." (12:32) 



363 47; Form X 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



'Then why do they not turn to Allah (in repentance) and 
seek His protective forgiveness ." (5:74) 



"And those who ask for protective forgiveness in the 
early hours of morning." (3:17) 



364 47; Form X 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 48 




Form XI JLt^l 

Jliil is formed by prefixing \ and infixing alif { \ ) between ^ 
and J and doubling the J. Verbs of this form usually describe 
intensity in color. 

Table of jlil»: 



Past 
Tense 


Imperfect 
Tense 


Imperative 


Verbal 
Noun 


Participle 


jUiJ 




M 


vfei 




fl*:>i 


fUbJu 


^USl 


filial 





^ViSi - To be deep green/black 
Example from the Qur 'an: 






'Both, dark green in colour." (55:64) 



365 



48: Form XI 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




366 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 49 




FOUR LETTERED VERBS 

Form XII- JJL*f> 

These verbs are formed from four letters, the root of which is 
Jiii. They are not derived from the tri-literal form jii. 

Table of JliS: 



t 




Imperfect 
Tense 


Imper- 
ative 


Verbal 
Noun 


Active 
Participle 


Passive 
Participle 


Passive 


Imperfect 
Passive 


j& 




jiii 


SAiii 


Jiili 


jlAIi 


J^ 










o ^ 

C^3 








C^3 





Examples: 






u^>^ J? ^^ ^ 



367 



4$: Form XII 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"Who whispers into the bosoms (hearts or minds) of 
mankind." (114:5) 

"When the Earth is quaked with its quaking," (99:1) 

"But to live (so long) would by no means remove him 
from the punishment." (2:96) 

// <,'< » f< >>x » ^> •• »/ < v 

"So their Fosterer destroyed them due to their sin and 
thus balanced it (the destruction was equal to their 
crime)." (91:14) 



W 



'V 



IH 



"And the night when // comes (and goes)'" (81 : 17) 



368 49: Form XII 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 50 




DERIVED FORMS OF 4-LETTERED VERBS 



' i 



FORM XIII -Jil^ 



Table of jAJuu: 



Past 
Tense 


Imperfect 
Tense 


Imperative 


Verbal 
Noun 


Participle 


Ji^ 




$& 


jkis 


Jiilii 


FORMXIV-^j 

Table of jiiil: 


Past 
Tense 


Imperfect 
Tense 


Imperative 


Verbal 
Noun 


Participle 


J&l 




$^\l&>\ 


J%1| 


jiiii 


tjUJp} 


ij^^hj 


a 


jllLJ^ 





369 50: Derived FormsOf 4-Lettered '. . 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Examples: 



4 iS& O^Qc&J <$ J^ 

"(Ibrahimi said, 'Why not, but for the satisfaction of my 
heart."' (2-260) 

"While his heart is peaceful with belief." (16:106) 

"O you peaceful soul!" (89:27) 



r* 7 - 






'The skins of those who fear their Fosterer tremble (in 
response to the effect produced) by it." (39:23) 



FORM XV l)£**l 



Table of jliiil: 



Past 
Tense 


Imperfect 
Tense 


Imperative 


VerbM 
Noun 


Active 
Participle 


Passive 
Participle 


S^\ 




J%i) 




AlIijLa 



370 50; Derived FormsOf4-Lettered. . . 



= Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 5 1 




DECLENSION OF A NOUN 



In Arabic, declension is called ^\'J^% which we dealt with briefly 
in the second chapter. Based on the <L>\£>% nouns are divided 
into two groups: Indeclinable (gj-^) and Declinable (vj^O 

INDECLINABLE NOUNS - ^11 

A noun whose final vowel is static is said to be *£2\, i.e the 
harakah on the last letter of the noun does not change in the 
nominative, accusative or genitive case. 
Nouns that are indeclinable are: 

1. All forms of pronouns such as lil, c-k ^J>, Uj>, y>. Past 
tense verbs that have pronouns like dJl, U\ hidden in them 
such as 6oJ^>, cJJ"l are also indeclinable. 



371 



51 ; Declension of a Noun 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



2. Particles of interrogation, prepositions, jussive and subjunctive 
particles like: Ji/ ^{ #f & ty ^, ^J / Ji, etc. 

1 . Relative and demonstrative pronouns like: alb ^Ail t^all 
dJbJjl etc. 

2. Nouns ending with a///"( 1 ) but spelt with the ending ^ like 
^fy* and ^11? • This kind of alif is called oj^Jailll U^i\ t 
Other example includes: ^Jo", ^jJL: , ^li. 

Examples: 

" (There is) guidance (in it) for those who guard (against 
evil)." (2:2) 

"And those who believe, (both) in the life of this wor/J 
and on the Day when the witnesses will stand." (40:51) 

"He said, Throw it down O Mwra.'" (20:19) 

"Then do not sit with the unjust people after remembering 
it." (6:68) 






"He indeed saw (some) of the greater signs of his 
Fosterer." (53:18) 

372 51 ; Declension of a Noun 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



DECLINABLE NOUNS -Ijlll 

♦ A declined noun is said to be <l^yJ*}\ i.e. changeable. They 
are of two types: 

1. i— iyvaUM 

♦ Nouns which are Lj^aUM are fully changeable and display 
the case they are in, by O^sLU il>\y^\ or u3j_^Ll> ^\y^{\. 
These are called triptotes. For example, lLU> and %*\s». 

♦ Nouns which are u£^Jl ^ pyull are partly changeable 
and are called diptotes. Most proper names of non-Arabic 
origin, whether personal or geographical and adjectives 
denoting colors are diptotes. For example: 

♦ Nouns of this kind will never bear lanwin (^J5/ ^ <J ) or 
kasrah (-7™). 

Examples: 

"The leaders of Firawn 's people said." (7:109) 

373 51 Declension of a Noun 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"(We will follow the) religion (dictated by) Ibrahim the 
upright." (2: 135) 

"And when Ibrahim was raising the foundations of the 
house with Ismael (he prayed)." (2:127) 

"Go to Firawn, he has certainly rebelled." (79: 1 7) 
"And Dawood killed Jalut." (2:251) 

"It should be a yellow colored cow; its color should be 
intensely yellow, delighting those who look at it." (2:69) 

"A messenger who will come after me, his name being 
Ahmed." (61:6) 



374 51 : Declension of a Noun 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 52 




EXCEPTION 



;r- 1 -' 






The particle used to make an exception is N) The noun which 
follows Sh is usually in the accusative case (^_ JaiJl). 
£xaw7/?/e: 

"There is no God except Allah.' 5 (37:35) 
There are two parts in a sentence where the particle of exception 
"J is used -Excepted ( jilliH) and Generality (ii* JsiliJI). 

In the above example: 

a]\ - is the generality, ^ L ^— *3l 

Sl\ - is the particle of exception, ^\shl^l\ dtj^- 

iiil - is the excepted, 



375 



52: Exception 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



There are two types of Exception (^jlLLill): 
1. xfc i lUt ^jiLLUl: The excepted (^jilLUt) is not from the 
species/group of the generality (ii* ^jiiJLUl). For example; 

u And whe:i We (Allah) said to the angels, 'Bow down 
before Adam/ they bowed down except Iblis." (2:34) 

The excepted, JLd?} (a jinn), does not belong to the group of 
angels referred to by the verb Ijlkli. The excepted QjiillJl) is 
always in the accusative case (4>j-i!lM ) in Jailitf ^jiilill 



2. <J-^-^ ^JsIL.!)!: The excepted ( { jilljjl) belongs to the 

same species/ group of the generality (iL* ^jlillil). 
Example: 

"But they drank from it except a few of them," (2:249) 
The rules which decide the harakah on the jiilil! in jiilUl 
J^iHi are: 

1 . If the generality (il* j£ilJS\) and Nj are preceded by a sound 
statement, which is not interrogative or negative, then the 
excepted (^jiLLijl) will be in the accusative case (^j^all]!). 

"Everything will perish except His person." (28:88) 

376 52; Exception 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



2. If particles of interrogation or negation precede ^\ in an 
exceptional sentence, then the excepted can bear fatha (—) 
or the e'raab of the generality (_£.). 

"And Muhammad is not more than a messenger." (3:144) 

3. When generality (a1? ^JillJJV) is not evident in a verb and a 
particle of interrogation or negation precedes the statement, 
then the excepted (^jllLlll) will bear the harakah according 
to its case (nominative -£., accusative _i or genitive -7-). 

"No one knows them except a few." (18:22) 

"Do not serve anyone except Allah." \ 2:83) 

"So we delivered him and his followers except his wife." 
(7:82) 

Examples: 

"No one knows them except a few." ( 18:22) 

377 52; Exception 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"Everyth ng will perish except His Person." (28:88) 

"Nothing comes out except a little." (7:58) 

"It is notring but a reminder for the worlds." (12:104) 

"And Mu nam mad is no more than a messenger." (3:144) 

"And they say, 'The fire will not touch us except for a 
counted number of days.'" (2:80) 

"Who do not (even) know (what is written in) the book 
(their religion is nothing) but hearsay (idle tales or lies)." 

(2:78) 

"Do not serve anyone except Allah." (2:83) 

"Then you turned back except a few among you." (2:83) 

378 52; Exception 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 53 




ABSOLUTE NEGATION 

"There is no god except Allah." (37:35) 

"This is the book in which there is nothing doubtful. (2:2) 

1. The SI in the above examples is used for total negation. 

2. It is absolute denial of the species in the circumstance(s) 
defined by the sentences. 

3. There will be no nunnation (j^jJlj/-!— i) on the common 
noun following the ( j*44^ CJ& ^' 

4. This S/ precedes a common noun and makes it accusative 

(^-^Jaijl ). 



379 



53; Absolute Negation 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



,> a > „ „.f , 



5. The predicate of the sentence will be nominative (p^_i]Dl ). 
For example: 

'There is no god except Him." (2:163) 
Examples: 

"There is no portion in the hereafter." (3:77) 

"Allah, there is no god except Him, the Ever Living, the 
Eternally Existing." (2:255) 

'Then there is no approaching (your wives), nor 
transgression nor disputing during the Hajj." (2: 197) 

"And nothing less than that nor greater but it is 
(recorded) in a clear record." (10:61) 



"We do not have knowledge except of that which You 
taught us.' (2:32) 



"There is no sin on you." (2:236) 



380 53; Absolute Negation 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 54 




THE NOUN OF PLACE AND TIME 



1. Noun of place expresses the place where the action of the 
verb is committed. 

2. Noun of time expresses the time or occasion of that action. 

3. These nouns are on the pattern of one of the following: 

^LLs 1 ~~ Gathering 
J)U - Destination 
Jc*JLi - Mosque 
liy^-* - East 

l^ Joo - Religion 
Jiii - Battle-field 



381 



54; A-flifH of Place and Time 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Sijai- Time of rising 

Jlit - Place of meeting/Junction 



IjJla -Tomb 

9 

ilLi^ - Left side 

4. Mostly, when the harakah of the second radical in the 
imperfect form bears a dammah ( jiL ) then the noun for 

9 „ o „ 

time or place will be on the pattern of Jii*. 
Example: 

He kills/wi 11 kill Battle field 

5. When the harakah of the second radical in the imperfect 
form bears a kasrah ( J*IJ) then the noun for time or place 
will be on the pattern of J*a*. 

Example: 

He sits/will sit Gathering 

6. Sometimes though the second radical of the imperfect bears 
dammah ( jiiJ) , the noun of time or place will be on the 

9 o „ 

pattern of J*i-*. 

382 54: A^ww of Place and Time 



JS*L^O 


J > - 

: Jc>^ -> 


Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 

i>JcJ> - Mosciue 


i3Jr^ 




Oj^ — East 


& 


: jfe -» 


iilaJft - Place of rising 


v> 




4iA^ ~ West 



7. The plural of both the patterns for masculine and feminine 
will be on the pattern of JcAii. 



Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


9 a ^ 

A mosque 


Two mosques j Mosques 


A battle field 


Two battle fields Battle fields 



8. The passive participle (J^iii) of the derived verbs is 
considered as the noun of place and time. 

Example: 

Jiol -> J»-^» - Entrance 



£111 -> j»lLa 



Place 



J^=> -> J-^ - Place of prayer 



uJjLil -> ^JJll* 



Place of turmoil 



i .... 



9j£l\ -> 9 S^HJLi - Warehouse, Storehouse 

383 54: Abiw of Place and Time 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Examples: 

"And We indeed made the children of Israel settle down 
a real sett ing" (10:93) 

"And We will make you to enter an honored entry" (4:3 1 ) 

leg <J}+X j l ) i^^y^J JL*-***A L-jJoO $$ 

"For every news there is a (fixed) place/time, and you 
will come to know." (6:67) 

"Then (appointed for you) a place/time for staying (life) 
and a place/time for departure (death)." (6:98) 

x > "' s sis< "% >-f ^Ty 

|| ,^L-j^>/ jC-^--U a^jJU— LJ & 

"He will definitely make them enter an entry, with 
which they will be pleased." (22:59) 

"And I can never find besides Him, (any source of) 
refuge" (72:22) 

"And there is a place of stay and provision for you in the 
Earth till a time." (7:24) 



"And who is more unjust than one who prevents (people 
from) the mosques of Allah." (2:1 14) 

384 54; Noun of Place and Time 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 55 




NOUN OF INSTRUMENT 



2JVi ^i 



f**l 



1. The noun of instrument describes the instrument with 
which the action of the verb is carried out. 

2. It begins with the letter j» as the noun of place and time, but 
the * bears has rah (— ) instead offatha („:.). 

3. These nouns are on the pattern of one of the following: 

a 



rC3 ~> 


7-UjL? 


To open 


Keys 


7C*-*2 "^ 




Morning 


Lamp 


6jj ~> 


6|>? 


To weigh 


Balance 




385 



55: Noun of Instrument 



^^=__- Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



The plurals of i iii^, JUuL? and J-ii^ are on the pattern of 

Jlc-ui and Jc-U.i. 

'The Parable of His Light is as if there were a Niche and 
within it a Lamp." (24:35) 

"And with Him are the keys of the unseen, no one knows 
it but He.' (6:59) 

^ o£JT yj£ % ^4\ £$\ \jJ\j ^ 

"And establish the balance in a just manner and do not 
reduce the balance" (55:9) 



'Then as for him whose weights (of good deeds) are 
heavy." (101:6) 



386 55; Noun of Instrument 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 






. 




'•■■ - r •■■■■■■' 


Chapter 56 






■ 






KINDS OF FEMININE GENDER 



There are two genders in Arabic - Masculine (^Tllll) and 
Feminine (eJ^lll). 

Except for the following categories of words, all other words 
indicate masculine gender. 

1. Words that are feminine by meaning. 

cLu - A Girl 

sip-} - A Woman 



f 1 



- A Mother 



<1> 1 <"'*.<* 



"And the wife of Firawn said, 'Comfort of the eye for me 
and you,'" (28:9) 

4 *s2^3&y$ &$^&^ 



387 



56; Feminine Gender 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"So We communicated to the mother of Musa, 'Suckle 
him.'" (28:7) 



2. Words ending with " 5 " (*J»£J1 il£l\). 


Example: 




^ $ *■ 

AJL>- - 


Paradise 


e*X*i — 


Prayer 


s6j — 


Charity 


h - 


Humiliation 




Community 


i&* 





"And on the Day when We will raise a witness from 
every community'" (16:84) 

"And when the Garden is brought near." (81:13) 

Feminine nouns arc also formed by adding " o " (SJ^^lll *l£U) to 
masculine nouns and adjectives as can be seen from the following: 

ILL* -> SlLloft - Muslim woman 

54 -> 4jo} - Girl 

jjZ -> »3ip — Big 

J^' ^ lb' - Night 

388 56: Feminine Gender 



jjJiii^^iijyruQ 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"We certainly sent it down during the night of Al-Qadr." 
(97:1) 



"And this is certainly difficult except for the humble 
ones." (2:45) 

Though some words end with " S ", they are considered 
masculine such as: 



U* 



ifllii - Vicegerent/Successor 

"I am going to make a successor in the Earth." (2:30) 
3. Words ending with " *1 " (sSjilJl Jj% 
Examples: 

i\'J&~>- - Green 

£13^1 - Black 

£U4> - White 

iVJf- - Red 

*lJJLi - Yellow 

frill - Sky 

"And when the s/cy has its covering removed." (81:11) 

389 56; Feminine Gender 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"A yellow colored cow, its color should be intensely 
yellow, delighting those who look at it." (2:69) 

Though some words end with *l, they are considered masculine. 
For example: 

iUic- - Learned 

iVj& - Poor 

i\l±L - Martyrs 

/ * i > * fvr ' s \ i > * {' v 

"And call your witnesses besides Allah." (2:23) 

"Alms are only for the poor and the needy." (9:60) 

4. Words ending with ^ i.e oj^JJO <JaJM\. 
Example: 

&j& - Big 

<£^Q - Good news 

m uaidi c£ridi aj«.Uj fe 

"And the good news came to him, he began to plead with 

Us." (11:74) 

5. Words feminine by convention like geographical names of 
towns, villages, countries, etc such as: 

390 56.- Feminine Gender 



'Ja* - Egypt 
y£\ - Rome 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"And the Egyptian who purchased him said to his wife." 

(12:21) 






"The Romans have been defeated." 1 30:2) 

6. Parts of the body that are in pairs. 

jj - Hands 
J^ - Eyes 
j*-j ~ Feet 
jil - Ears 

7. Names given to fire. 

"And you will not be questioned about the inhabitants of 
the/fe// J /w-e."(2:119) 



"I will make him enter Hell." (74:26) 

391 56: Feminine Gender 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



8. Names given to wind. 

j»^Ll - Scorching wind 

y#y& - Furious and intensely cold wind 

Ajj - Wind 

cJLvplc- - Violent wind 

"So We sent a furious wind on them during the days of 
loss." (41: 16) 

"On which the w/wc/ blows hard on a stormy day." 
(14:18) 



Certain other 


■ nouns are also considered feminine 




- 


Earth 


Jll 


- 


Sun 




- 


Self 


> 


- 


Wine 


?2 


- 


Well 


> 


- 


House 


>' 


_ 


Fire 



392 56; Feminine Gender 



-« Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'Ah 



"By the sun and its light." (91 : 1 ) 



■*'.ll£ 



"(It is a) very hot fire" (101:11) 

"When the £ar//z is quaked with its quaking." (99:1) 



;^$(^tpji^ 



"No! And I do swear by the self-accusing soul (th< 
conscience)." (75:2) 



393 56; Feminine Gende 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




394 



Learning Arabic language of the QUR'AN 








. ■ 


Chapter 57 


:•;■•:..' 






CONDITIONAL SENTENCES 



There are two parts in a conditional sentence - The Condition or 
Protasis (i»)iJI J*i) anc * Apodosis (i^iJl 4*!}^ /4>Jr^ *!3^)- 
In a verbal sentence, sometimes the protasis (^iJl J*i) and the 
apodosis (^lll ^j=r) have the verb in the perfect or jussive mood. 

"If you help Allah, He will help you." (47:7) 

A conditional sentence is introduced by one of the following 
particles. 



If 


When 


If 


»* 

y 

Who / Whom / 
Whoever 


Whatever 


Which/ Which ever 


When 




Co 

What 


Where 


- 



395 



57: Conditional Sentences 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



1 . l)I (if) is used to begin the sentence. 



"And if you return then We (too) will return." (8:19) 
When °o\ is preceded by j , it means indeed if/ certainly if. 

"If you do not desist I will definitely stone you, now go 
away from me for a long time." (19:46) 

"And if he does not do what I command him to do, he 
will definitely be imprisoned." (12:32) 

Note: ty. when followed by N} is merely a negative particle. 

"7* is nothing but a communication, communicated." (53:4) 

2. ol and ^ are said to be likely or possible conditions. In the 
likely conditional sentence, the i*^!)! Jii and thei>)iJl 4>!y?- 
can be the perfect or the jussive. 



4 <iU^ ClL^ (t-^li > <^j>-\ *W- ^£ 



"50 wAew tiie fear comes, you see them looking at you." 
(33:19) 

396 57 ': Conditional Sentences 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"Then when the fear goes away, they meet you with 
sharp tongues." (33:19) 

3. The unlikely condition is introduced by the conjunctional. 

"And had your Fosterer willed He would have made 
mankind a single community." (11:118) 

d ^JiT^lii- ^ \^ J^X^; li4J^ -^^JJ J--r*- ^ o^J^^^a Qy \ ji ^ 

"If We had sent down this Quran on a mountain, you 
would have seen it fallen down splitting asunder due to 
the fear of Allah." (59:21) 

An unlikely negative condition is often expressed by NJ5 (if 
not/had not) 

"And //Allah had not decreed exile for them." (59:3) 

"And had Allah not repelled some human beings with 
others." (2:251) 

Examples: 

"/IwJ //you intend to exchange one wife in the place of 
another." (4:20) 

# ^Xi\ X+S> (jA ^o JJb '^JjAi <C-**^- f>4^-> <l)]j |£ 

397 57; Conditional Sentences 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"And if good befalls them they say, This is from Allah.'" 

(4:78) 

"So whoever does good equivalent in weight, even to a 
small particle, will see it." (99:7) 



^ ojjL3-i ^ tMy^^i j&d*j^ 



"And whoever does not believe in it, then those are the 
persons who are the losers." (2:121) 

"Whoever does evil, he will be requited with it." (4:123) 

"And whoever does that, he will meet (the punishment of 
his) sin." (25:68) 

"And they said, ' Whatever sign you may bring to us, to 
influence us with its magic, we will not believe in you.'" 

(7:132) 

"(By) whichever (name) you call (Him), His are the best 
names." (17 110) 

398 57; Conditional Sentences 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"So when he provided them with their prov ision." (12:70) 

"And whatever good you do Allah knows it." (2:197) 

^Sju^^cI f&h ^H l rA^ Vj^M f 

"Wherever you be, death will catch you up, even if you 
are in towers raised high." (4:78) 






"Where are those whom you claimed (that they were 
Our) partners?" (6:22) 



399 57 ; Conditional Sentences 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




400 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 58 




INNA AND ITS SISTERS 

The following particles are called \&\^>-\j <jl. 



Certainly 



Certainly 



Like that 



But 



Would that 



May/perhaps 



1. When nouns are preceded by these particles they are in 
accusative case and the predicate is in nominative case. 
These particles are found in a nominal sentence and give 
fatha (JL) to the noun that follows it and dammah (-J-) to 
its predicate. 

2. 5i and 3 both are used to emphasize the meaning of the 
predicate but oi comes in the beginning of the sentence 
while o^ comes between the sentence. 

3. o! is always found in the beginning of a sentence. 



401 



58: Inna and its Sisters 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"Allah is certainly Protectively Forgiving, Merciful." 
(16:18) 

"Allah certainly has power over everything."(2:20) 
4. 51 always follow the verb J\S and its forms such as oJU, 

"He says that it is a cow which is neither old nor (very) 
young." (2:68) 

Examples: 

"Say, 'Grace is certainly in the hand of Allah.'" (3:73) 

"And Sulaiman did not reject but the devils rejected." 
(2:102) 

"But the punishment of Allah will be severe." (22:2) 
^ \J\ <*»> ju> d>-K -OilJJ <jLjjl3 V ^ 

"You do not know, perhaps Allah may bring about an 
event (of reunion) after that." (65:1) 

402 58; Inna and its Sisters 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 59 




KAANA AND ITS SISTERS 

The following particles are called \^>\y-\ j OS. 



Was 



Not 



To become 



To become, 

to pass the 

night 



To become, to 

enter/do in the 

morning 



To become, to 

enter, to do in 

the evening 



Increasingly, 
continuously 



* IS U 

Forever, 
continuously 



To enter 
the dawn 



& 



Remain, 

to be, 
continue 



These verbs give dammah (_L) to its noun mdfatha (jL) to its 
predicate. 



403 



59: Kaana and its Sisters 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Examples: 

"Ibrahim was neither a Jew nor a Christian." (3:67) 

"And the heart of Musa's mother became void (of 
patience)." (28:10) 

0,> >> ,/ '~\ V 



"His face is shadowed black." (16:58) 

"7s wo/ Allah the Best Judge, of all the judges?" (95:8) 



404 59; Kaana and its Sisters 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 60 




THE ACCUSATIVE - I 



* s9 A . 



Objects - jlcU^J i 



The objects of the verb are in the accusative case i.e c^alll *Jl>.. 
There are five kinds of objects: 

I. DIRECT OBJECT - a, j^ilDi: 

It is used as the direct object of a verb. 
Examples: 

"Who created //ze skies and /Ae Earths (29:61) 

"So whoever is on a pilgrimage (Hajj) to the house 
(Ka'bah)." (2:158) 



405 



60: 77r<? Accusative I 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"And when We will We can bring in their place (others) 
like them, changing (completely)." (76:28) 

u And He has sent down the distinction (between right 
and wrong, the Qur'an)." (3:4) 

Some verbs take two or more objects. 

"And We gave them clear explanations of the (religious) 
affair." (45:17) 

"We have made it an Arabic Quran that you may 
understand." (43:3) 

"And He taught ^rfam a// names." (2:3 1) 

II. ABSOLUTE OBJECT - jl£lfi j^Juuft: 

The absolute object is a verbal noun which is in the 
accusative case. It is used in three ways. 

406 60; The Accusative I 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



In the first case the absolute object is used to stress the 
verb. It is a verbal noun which can be of the same root \ erb 
used in the sentence. Some examples are given below. 



li^UciJllUici UUfr 



"We certainly opened for you (a way by giving you) a 
clear victory:' (48:1) 



< Is JfJ^ \ Jtj^S\ ii\J h 



"And Allah caused you to grow from the earth (as a) 
growth." (71:17) 

"And recite the Qur'an gradually (giving) intervals" 
(73:4) 

Sometimes the verbal noun, used as an absolute object, can be 
from a different root verb but of the same meaning such as: 

' " "m NJl *^L_ ^" 11 



"They will not harm you except annoying (you)." 
(3:111) 

2. In the second case the absolute object is used to know the 
number of times a work has been done. 

Example: 

407 60: 7Vie Accusative I 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"So that they (could) attack you with a single (sudden 
and united) attack." (4:102) 

3. In the third case the absolute object is used to describe how, 
the action was done. i.e. as an adverb. 

# *Jbu> <3>- -oil \yu\ \jU*\* «yul\ ^uj;# 

"O you who believe ! fear Allah as He ought to be feared." 
(3:102) 

III. OBJECT FOR TIME AND PLACE - & j^iiJI/J^! 



Nouns which are used to show the time or place of an action are 



called Ali J^illSl or <J£JaJI. These are also in the accusative case 
Examples: 



^y ij^y ^*jt *«^y j«s 



"He replied, 'I stayed for a day or part of a day.'" 
(2:259) 

"I invited my people (towards You) night and day" 
(71:5) 

"He says, 'Now I repent.' 1 ' (4:18) 

408 60; The Accusative I 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"He knows that which is before them and that which is 
behind them." (2:255) 

Some accusatives may be expressed by prepositional phrases. 



^ •* 



fUl 



O'vS 



^ 



above 
before 
l\\j - behind 
JJl^I - lower 



lJlL>- - behind 

beneath/under 
after 
infront of 

# l-X^-u .jh- ^ . .aJI»- <j^ '-^— -^ f*-f -k ' cAj ^j-^ bJut^-g jp 

"And We have made a barrier before them and a barrier 
te/z/W them." (36:9) 

"Then she was called from beneath her, 'Do not 
grieve, your Fosterer has made a rivulet beneath you.'" 
(19:24) 

"And the caravan was on your lower side." (8:42) 



409 



60: The Accusative I 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 






"Because there is a king who is q/fer rtem (and) he takes 
every boat r>y force." (18:79) 

"So he began (the search) with their sacks before 
(searching} the sack of his brother." (12:76) 

IV. OBJECT FOR AIM OR PURPOSE - 

4} J^iJLii is also a verbal noun which is in the accusative case. It 
expresses the reason of an action of a verb. 

Examples: 



"Like him who spends his wealth to be seen by people." 
(2:264) 






"And do not kill your children for fear of poverty." 
(17:31) 



\s^&t&J& 



41 60; The Accusative I 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



'They do not beg from people, being troublesome by 
demanding frequently." (2:273) 

Att\ JLA^Zfy* *\—j£>) a^Lju i£sJ<* cy* o*^\^2j?j y 

"And among human beings is he who sells himself 
seeking the pleasure of Allah." (2:207) 

"Did you not see those who exhibit ingratitude in 
exchange for Allah's favors?" (14:28) 

L?-Ax>j LJo * x^j OjCJ* ^4*** f 

"Then Firawn and his army followed them in rebellion 
and transgression," (10:90) 

^ opt Jj^ ^>iJ^ pjft; -^ f**r^ 5^«fi.^ 

"They thrust their fingers in their ears (because of) the 
fear of death from the thunder-claps." (2:19) 

V. OBJECT FOR DENOTING MEANING OF "WITH" - 

The particle "j" is used to give the meaning of £* (with). 
The object which follows j will be in an accusative case 

41 1 60; 7Yre Accusative I 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



^ Ait >d^ p^1 $£> m V ^ p^l^j p^a !**£■» ^ 

"Now you make a collective decision in your affair 
along with your (presumed) partners (of Allah) then do 
not let your affair be dubious to you." (10:71) 



412 60; The Accusative I 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 61 




THE ACCUSATIVE - II 

Noun for State - <Jl>Ji 



The word JbU is a peculiarly Arabic construction. It is used to 
describe the condition or circumstances at the time of the action of 
the main verb and the circumstance of the subject or object or both. 
* ° t f. 

jlil is a common noun ( o^SoJI) in the accusative form. The 

subject of the intransitive verb (fjSU\) and the object of the 
transitive verb (£jJi£Ul) is called Jl^l j3 and it is usually a 
proper noun, 4j>^i*Jl. 

For example: 

"And We will gather them on the Day of Resurrection 
on their faces, blind md dumb and deaf." (17:97) 



413 



61 ; The Accusative II 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"My Fosterer! Have mercy on them in a manner similar 
to the manner in which they fostered me when I was a 
small (child):" (17:24) 

# hy--^* u>«Ju \^\\.^ f~$*->£ ljl«>-^>->^ 

"Then We appoint Hell for him, he will enter it 
disgraced, driven away" (17:18) 

"My Fosterer! I vow to you that which is in my womb to 
beset free (for your service)" (3:35) 

"And as for him who comes to you striving hard..." (80:8) 

"And when they see any commerce or pastime, they 
disperse towards it and leave you standing" (62:1 1) 

"So he went away from there fearfully vigilant." (28:21) 

"And he will return happily to his class of people." (84:9) 

"They turn on their backs in hatred" (17:46) 

41 4 61 ; The Accusative II 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"(How) their shadows return from right and left bowing 
down to Allah while they are humbly (following His 
laws)?" (16:48) 

Sometimes when "j" is used between sentences it is called Jli-l jl} 
meaning "while". The second sentence is a nominal sentence and 
forms a structure of JU-. Such a sentence is called SJlil SJuiU. 

Example: 

"Do not go near worship (salat) when you are 
intoxicated (not conscious)" (4:43 ) 



"And how can you take it (back) when one of you has 
gone into the other." (4:21) 

^ 

Jli-I j\j is dropped when a verbal sentence follows. For example: 



"And a man came running from a distant (part) of the 
city, he said, 'O my people! Follow the messengers.'" 
(36:20) 



41 5 61 ; The Accusative II 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



THE SPECIFICATION - j^ill 

The specification yJ*A\ is an indefinite accusative noun which is 
used to clarify what is not clear by the verb of the sentence. It usually 
explains the verb and may express weight, number, measure or other 
kind of specification. It is in accusative case t^^Jl aJU-, and may 
also be called j£li5l. It answers to the question what/how many? 



"My Fosterer! Increase me in knowledge." (20:1 14) 

"I have more wealth than you and I am mightier in the 
party (of followers)." (1 8:34) 



yC*s> o-^ o* J>r T-y^ ^ ^i s 



"We certainly do not waste the reward of him who does 
good work" (18:30) 



^^^1j^li1^jji^i : ^j 



"The rising at night (for righteous work) certainly gives 
rise to more strength of co-ordination and firmly 
established speech" (73:6) 

"Those who were more severe than him in strength and 
more in collection (of people/ wealth).' 1 (28:78) 

416 61; The Accusative II 



s— Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"I saw eleven planets.''' (12:4) 

^ Uyl -ill! ^3 J ^jk ^ <->"LJi *-I^OJ f 

"And you see people enter the religion of Allah in 
troops r (110:2) 

"So he stayed among them for a thousand years less fifty 
years r (29:14) 

"And We appointed for Musa thirty nights:' (7:142) 

"The number of months with Allah is certainly twelve 
months (in a year)." (9:36) 

"But those who believe are strongest in love for Allah." 
(2:165) 

"And who is better than Allah in coloring:'' (2:138) 
The noun following ^= (how much/ how many) is in the 
singular accusative case. ^= can also be used to show that the 
object has a large number. In this case, °J==> will not be an 

41 7 61 ; The Accusative II 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



interrogative, questioning the number but will take the noun 
following it in the genitive case as in the following ayats: 

"And a great number of cities, We destroyed.'' (7:4) 

/-"tit "T^-"*- r*-^-^\ 

"And a great number of towns, which were unjust we 
destroyed." (21:11) 



The noun following the numerals will be jILlsJI. Their plurals will be 
possessed ( OJ i3Ua.Ul ) and in the genitive case like the following: 



-1 4jt*_-o t .»Ajo (y* ^o-U*-)^>tJ 



^ 



"And the sea ( were ink) with seven more seas added to 
it" (3 1:27) 

The noun counted after the number 13 to 99 is singular and in 
the accusative case. 

Example 

"He has ninetj nine ewes" (38:23) 

From hundred onwards, the counted object jLiSll is genitive and 
singular like in the verse: 

"In every ear a hundred grains" (2:261) 

41 8 61 ; The Accusative II 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 62 




PARTICLES OF CONJUNCTION 






Particles which link words in sentences aie called conjunctions. 
They are: 



Conjunction 


Meaning 


Notes 


J 


And 


cJaUt j\j - links one sentence to 

another or a noun to another 
noun. 


While 


JtiUjij - comes between two 

sentences the second of which is 
a nominal sentence. 


t3 


Then 


It implies a close connection 
between sentences before and 
after it. 


\ 


Or 


To express doubt, or give choice 
of one among few mentioned 
deeds. 



419 



62: Particles of Conjunction 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



r 


Whether 


For determination of one among 
few choices when the first object 

is preceded by hamza (1). 


k 


When since/ 

after/ 

because 


It is used with nominal or verbal 
sentences and refers to 
something of the past. 


H 


When/ if 


It usually indicates a time related 
to the present or future. 




After that/ 

then, there 

upon 


It often introduces sentences 
without a preliminary j or^J. 


d^ 


Until 7 even 
up to 


Used to indicate the termination 
of an object 


J*J/^ 


But 


j_4=J is followed by a verb and 
j<==S is followed by a noun in the 

accusative e.g. and as prefixed to 
pronouns 


Ul 


Either... or 


When used twice in a sentence, 
it gives the meaning of 
"either.... or...." 


€\ 


As for 


It is followed by a nominative, 
the predicate of which is always 

introduced with a c3. 



420 



62; Particles of Conjunction 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Examples: 

"Then there is no approaching (your wives), nor 
transgression nor disputing during the Hajj." (2:197) 

"And give their dowries to the women as a free gift." (4:4) 

"And how can you take it (back) when one of you has 
gone into the other?" (4:21) 

A c2J&t-Ap tit C CJ~~p 

"Then Adam received (some) words from his Fosterer." 

(2:37) 

"Then bring it out for us, you follow nothing but 
conjecture." (6:148) 

"And do not shave your heads until the offering reaches 
its destination," (2: 196) 



421 62: Particles of Conjunction 



— =^=*==^^^= Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 

"And whoever among you is sick or has an ailment of 
the head, then (he should effect a) ransom by fasting or 
(giving) clurity or sacrificing." (2:196) 

"And whether you manifest that which is in your souls 
or hide it, Allah will call you to account for it." (2:284) 

"If Allah intends to harm me, could they remove from 
me His harm, or if He intends to be merciful to me, 
could they withhold from me His mercy?" (39:38) 

^ P^^^^ roii. o>.^T jH ^otLlJS ^liJt \j^x Jf Ji^-X f^ ^ 

"Do you think that you will enter the garden while there 
has not yet oome upon you the like of (that which came 
upon) those who passed away before you?" (2:214) 



& ±4^L* ojj-wJ> \yC$ Ji 4l>J\^ oy^ ? sfe 

"Or do they say, 'He has invented it.' Say, '(If any human 
being can invent it) then bring one chapter like it'" (10:38) 

"And w/zew your Fosterer said to the angels, 'I am going 
to make a successor in the Earth/" (2:30) 

\ 4j*i y>> 02 oj-ui u^j j^, iyc^ ^ j^»yj *y te i^ 

422 62; Particles of Conjunction 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"When they said to their people, L We are free of you and 
that which you worship besides Allah.'" (60:4) 

"He said, 'Do you know what you did with Yusuf and 
his brother while you were ignorant."' (12:89) 

"When the Earth is quaked with its quaking." (99:1) 

"When Allah's help and the victory comes." (1 10:1) 

"And those who do not believe say, 'What! When we 
become (part of the) soil and our fathers (too), will we 
be brought out?'" (27:67) 

/ < >\'' < *' <&<,* \, 
"Again, no, you will know." (102:4) 

"That is because they believed then became infidels." 
(63:3) 

"Peace! It is till the appearance of dawn." (97:5) 

423 62 ; Particles of Conjunction 



= Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



j*2\i*\£*£&»j&\\J\Xc)} 



"You will never attain righteousness unless you spend 
from that which you love." (3:92) 



iiil 






"So you did not kill them Aw/ Allah killed them, and you 
did not throw when you threw but Allah threw." (8:17) 

"They will say, 'Why not, to the statement of punishment 
has become binding on the infidels.'" (39:71) 



"Then afterwards, either show favor or ransom (them) ' 
(47:4) 

"As for the boat, it belongs to poor people." (18:79) 

"And as /or the young man, his parents are believers " 

(18:80) 



424 62; Particles of Conjunction 



Learning Arabic Language of the QURAN 




Chapter 63 




INTERJECTIONS 



11! ' ' 



THE VOCATIVE - *fjLJt ilj^ 



Particles which are used to call or address someone are vocative 
particles. They are called *1joJI oljSI and are as follows: 



u; 


O ! (masculine and feminine) 


\£k 


! (masculine) 


\£k 


! (feminine) 



1. When U is followed by a noun in the singular, it will be in 
the nominative case. This noun will be without ^y5 
(nunnation) and without the article ' <jr, 

2. As we have said earlier, the vocative particle is called & I1J1 d$J>- 
and the one who is called is ^1*. 

425 63: Interjections 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Example: 

"O Ibrahim, keep away from this." (1 1 :76) 

3. If the esStu (one who is called) is oUai (possessed), then 
it will be in the accusative case like: 

"O owners of the book! Why do you not believe in the 
signs of Allah/' (3:70) 

4. Sometimes the first person singular passive pronoun ^ which 
follows a noun is omitted and replaced by a kasrah (— ) or 
" o " to denote emotional feelings towards the addressed 
one. 

Example: 

"He said. 'O My fatherl do what you have been 
commanded (to do).'" (37:102) 

Sometimes the vocative U is omitted along with the pronoun like 



mj: 



"He said, 6 Afy Fostererl I invited my people (towards 
You) night and day.'" (71:5) 



426 63; Interjections 



Learning Arab c Language of the QUR'AN 



5. The vocative IJ^U is used for masculine and I4LIU for 
feminine gender. The nouns which follow these vocatives 
are in the nominative case and preceded by the article ' j\\ 



{p^^\p^jX^^^}. 



"O mankind*. Serve your Fosterer Who created you." 

(2:21) 



~ s>Z s ~> 



i4 Say, 'OlnfidelsV" (109:1) 

"O ^ow who believe! Seek help through patience and 
worship (salat)" (2:153) 

"Ojow peaceful soul!" (89:27) 

6. To address a gathering 1^1 is used like in the following 
ayat. 

"And turn to Allah all together, O believers'" (24:3 1) 

7. For the purpose of prayer, instead of *1jJ1 <-3p- the vocative 
particle, 

6 p ' is suffixed to Allah like in: 

427 63; Interjections 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"You are glorified (above all) O Allah, and their greeting 
therein will be 'Peace.'" (10:10) 

8. To express feelings of affections, U is followed by a verbal 
noun or a nominal sentence as in the following: 

"He said, 'Ogoodnewsl Here is a youth,'" (12:19) 

jf <> > <- />V 1\~"Y 

"He said, 'O mv w/tow for Yusuf. "' (12:84) 

9. Sometimes aIjJI <~*jji- is omitted. Some examples are 



listed below. 



"\ > > > 



"Yusuf, turn away from this." (12:29) 

"<9wr Fosterer] Give us good in this world..." (2:201) 

"Our Fosterer] Protectively forgive us our sins and our 
excesses in our affair." (3:147) 

428 63: Interjections 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



OTHER PARTICLES OF INTERJECTION 



£ „ a 



u^lUJ cS>>VI ljIj^VI 

1 . To express grief or anguish towards someone, the particle 
JJ>J is always followed by J in an indirect speech. Example: 



"> -: > 



"Sorrowful is the state of every slanderer, defamer." (104:1) 

"Sorrowful is the state of those who measure and weigh 
less than what is due." (83:1) 

In direct speech, J is replaced by the pronouns as diijj (Woe to 
you!) and UJu} (Woe to us!). 

2. tUuJ / Qi*J\ are also used to express grief or anguish as in: 

"Sorrowful is your state, believe, Allah's promise is 
certainly true." (46:17) 

"AM The ungrateful are not successful." (28:82) 

"Sorrow upon sorrow for you." (75:34) 

3. JJJj U (with feminine ending S instead of eS of the first 
person pronoun) is also used for the same type of expression. 

429 63; Interjections 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"She said, 'Sorrowful is my state, shall I have a child 
when I am an old woman.'" (1 1 :72) 

JU is used to express desire or wish after expressing 
some grief or anguish as in: 



"And the infidei will say, 'I wish I were dust.'" (78:40) 

4 1 jCa J-s c^ ^*--j cJ 'a h 

"She said, 7w//A I had died before this.'" (19:23) 

"He said, 'I wish my people could know.'" (36:26) 
5. Some other words used for expressing grief are: 

All these words come from the same root J^- 

" (Let there be) regret on My servants." (36:30) 

"They say, 'Alasl Our regrets on our neglecting it.'" (6:31) 

"My regre/s on being negligent towards Allah's side." (39:56) 
430 63; Interjections 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



6. olili is used as jJL> to express the distant or rare 
possibility of an occurrence. For example: 

dojJ&y tJotJpb ot^ft>^ 

"Far, far is that which you are promised." (23:36) 

7. ^1 gives the same meaning as °J6 'yes' but is always 
followed by a promise. For example: 

"Say, ' Yes\ And by my Fosterer, it is certainly true.'" (10:53) 

8- J? 'yes', indeed' answers with a certainty a question of 
doubt which contains a negative word For example: 



+ tl^ &})£$&&$) 



"Am I not your Fosterer? They said, ' Why not, we bear 
witness.'" (7:172) 






"Those who do not believe, claim that they will never be 
raised (after their death). Say, ' Why not\ By my Fosterer! 
You will definitely be raised.'" (64:7) 

9. Uil and U5} 'only' are words of restriction (Jc&\ <*Jj^L). 

"Say, 'lama man like you. It is communicated to me 
that your God is One God.'" (1 8:1 1 0) 

431 63; Interjections 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



\j\ also gives the same meaning. For example: 



"You Alone do we serve and (from) You Alone do we 
seek help." (1:5) 

"And then fear Me alone" (2:40) 

10. When *<&\ and 1^1 are use d in the beginning of a sentence, it 
will mean "indeed'* or "as a matter of fact". (They do not give 
the literal meaning of the word i.e. indeed he, indeed she). 

"The unjust will not be successful." (6:21) 

"77?e^7 certainly, the eyes are not blind but the hearts." 
(22:46) 

11. A word of warning is U meaning "Ah, be aware". 

"Yes, you are those who disputed about that of which 
you had knowledge." (3:66) 






"AM You are those who love them but they do not love 
you." (3:1 19) 

432 63; Interjections 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 64 




ADJECTIVES 



Adjectives are words that describe the quality, color or defect of 
the other noun. They are usually derived from intransitive verbs 
which denote a state or condition, rather than an act. 

There are certain patterns to denote an adjective. 



1. 



Jell - Active participle (This is detailed in chapter 35). 
41U?- Righteous/good 
ISli - Knowledgeable 
jut - Worshipper 



ss .<£ #. S %'\%<* 



"And I am not a server of that which you serve." (109:4) 

%j>- Noble 

433 64; Adjectives 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 

like- - Great 
ll>-j - Merciful 
^ji - Powerful 

"And Allah is the All-Knowing, the All-Wiser (9:15) 

"For them there are ranks with their Fosterer and 
protective forgiveness and an honored provision." (8:4) 

JjJJ* - Great wrong-doer 
jyik - Forgiver 
dtjij - Compassionate 

"Man is certainly unjust, ungrateful '." (14:34) 

"And Allah is Protectively Forgiving, Merciful" (2:218) 

"And Allah /s/w// of pity for (His) servants." (3:30) 

434 64; Adjectives 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



4. OtAAi 



jlljai - Angry 

d^j - Most gracious 

"The Beneficent, the Merciful." ( 1 :2) 

"So, Musa returned to his people angry and (in) grief." 
(20:86) 



5. JUS 



V^ 



Strong/powerful 



^ii^T^jq 



"The Mighty, the Compeller, the Possessor of Greatness." 
(59:23) 

The pattern used for colors and defects are: 





Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


Masculine 


? of- 

Jiil 


gSuii 


# 


Feminine 


iSui 


o|}i*i 


j^ 



435 



64; Adjectives 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Examples: 



"Until you can distinguish the white thread of the dawn 
from the black thread." (2:187) 

A ^>-\ 5l»\* %y* jyz j* frUaw rrj^- h 

"It will come out white without (any) harm, another 
sign." (20:22) 

"And in the mountains there are white and red layers, 
(and others) of different colors and (still others) 
intensely black." (35:27) 

"Deaf, dumb and blind, therefore they cannot return (to 
the light)." (2:18) 



436 64; Adjectives 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 65 




NOUN FOR PRE-EMINENCE 

It is a noun which is used to compare another noun. The 
comparison can be between two persons, things, groups or with 
one person to a group of people, etc. The noun of pre-eminence 
A'.rife" i-^i is of two types: 

1. Comparative - jj^^ f-4 

2. Superlative - Jl^air-Jl '^»\ 

THE COMPARATIVE - ^uil^j 

1. When two nouns are compared, the first noun which is 
called Jiwi)\ is greater in quality, quantity or relation to 
the second noun which is &Z. jJkiiH. The particle used to 
compare is °y». 

2. The sentence structure is as below: 



437 



65: Noun for Pre-eminence 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"And persecution is a greater (sin) than slaughter." (2:217) 

3. In a comparative sentence of Arabic j_^ is used as against 
"than" in English. 

Pattern of the noun of pre-eminence Jl^usll Ill is as follows: 





Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


Masculine 


j*il 




# 


Feminine 


* 


jUlii 


JJJ 



4. These are formed from the three radicals and their pattern is 
the same as that of colors and defects. The following are 
some examples: 

iLL^ ~ "beloved" -> CjJ - "more beloved, dearer" is formed. 
%S ~ "great" -* j&\ - "greater" is formed. 

5. The feminine of JJiil is jJo but the form JjJl is used for 
feminine comparative adjectives. 

438 65; Noun for Pre-eminence 



»= Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"The rising at night (for righteous work) certainly gives 
rise to more strength of co-ordination and firmly 
established speech." (73:6) 

6. If ftft\ or 4s- JJ01i\ are singular, dual or plural in a 
sentence, the comparative (dj^ R) used will be 
singular on the pattern of Jiii such as: 

"And We are nearer to him than his life vein." (50:16) 
Examples: 

"The night of Al-Qadr is better than a thousand months." 
(97:3) 



"And who w tetter than Allah in coloring?" (2:138) 

"And persecution is a greater (sin) than slaughter." 

(2:217) 

"He prays to him whose harm is nearer than his benefit.' 
(22:13) 

439 65: Noun for Pre-eminenc 



==========« Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 

THE SUPERLATIVE- Jj.hVhl^j 

It means the highest degree of comparison between humans, 
animals and objects through which the superiority of one is 
shown against all the others. 

There are two methods used to form the superlative. 

1- J^ 1 ^ (-4 is made definite by prefixing the article, jl 
During its formation we have to keep the gender and 
number in mind. 

^oal j^U- - Hamid is the greatest. 

cSj^xJl a^j^. - Khadijah is the greatest. 

y6 Ml i\jj r l}\ - The greatest martyrs. 

2 - J*-*" 5 ^ |*-I can be formed by using a possessive phrase. 
This type of formation takes place when the jJaiUl is the 
best in quality among a group of people possessing the 
same or different quality. 

"And you are the Best Judge of (all) the judges." (1 1 :45) 

"And He is /Ac Mwf Merciful of the merciful ones " 
(12:64) 

440 65: Noun for Pre-eminence 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"Is not Allah the Best Judge, of all the judges?" (95:8) 

"And He is r/z<? Swiftest in (settling) the account." (6:62) 

The comparative and superlative patterns are derived from three 
radicals as mentioned. Therefore we observe the change as: 

%S ~> j$\ - Bigger 



S?o . 



j&& ■> j*J&\ - Smaller 

In case of participles of the derived forms, words with more than 
three consonants, and words of the pattern jiK, the comparative 
is formed either by jS\ or 11\ followed by a noun in the 
accusative. For example: 

ijZ-^X -? * 1*3.0 Jul) 

White Whiter 

"But those who believe are strongest in love for Allah." 
(2:165) 

"I have more wealth than you." (18:34) 

441 65; Voun for Pre-eminence 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




442 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 66 




THE ELATIVE 



In Jl^Jl i^-I there is comparison between nouns where as in 
XifoiU ill, the quality is not compared with others but is 
possessed within self and has great intensity. 



Example: 



c^^IjJI JjlU -oil CLAm 



"And (that) Allah is the Knower of the unseenT (9:78) 

The patterns for the elative are the same for masculine and 
feminine and sometimes " S " (&>^>^\ *lSll) is added. Some 
patterns are stated below: 



Pattern 



O^ii 



Example 



Most merciful 



443 



66; The Elative 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



u 


§0 ^ 
One who listens (the best) 


JjC-lS 


Tyrant 


0^*3 


6^ 

Distinguisher 


$0^ 


Most truthful 


9 * > - 


Most forgiving 


9' 9 

Alii 


Defamer 


9 ^„ 


Oppressor, wrong doer (most) 




Most learned 


1 Caller (best), Summoner 


* < 
Rejoicing one 



444 



66: 77r^ Elative 



Learning Aiabic Language of the UUR'AN 




Fighter 


s&** 


Most talkative 


9 *> 


Most mighty 




Best sustainer 


JJii 


Most holy 



Examples: 



.'.*> 



"And they planned a grea/ plan." (71 :22) 

"You are certainly the Greatest Knower of unseen things " 
(5:109) 

'This is certainly a wonderful thing." (38:5) 



445 



66; The Elative 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"Allah is cenainly the Provider" (51 :58) 

"For man is hasty (by temperament)." (17:1 1) 

/ .'A ."> - > \\*<-\ 

"Sorrowful is the state of every slanderer, defamer." 
(104:1) 

"And the de\ il is a traitor for man." (25:29) 

"And I am certainly Protectively Forgiving for him who 
repents." (20:82) 

"Allah, there is no god except Him, the Living, the 
Eternally Existing" (2:255) 

"Certainly in that there are signs for every patient, 
grateful one" (14:5) 

"He is cenainly the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing," 
(7:200) 

446 66: The Elative 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




;.v : 








Chapter 67 




■ 








THE NUMBER AND ITS USAGE 



In Arabic the number iliJl is the number and SjiilH is the 
counted noun. 

THE CARDINAL NUMBERS &£Jt\ ilull 

The Arabic numerals are the trickiest features of written Arabic. 
They are. not governed by a single rule, but in general terms they 
are treated as the declinable nouns as their ending harakah are 
changed according to their cases. 

1. The number 1 is used as: 



.Masculine 


Feminine 







447 67; Numbers and its Usage 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 






"It is communicated to me that your God is One God." 
(18:110) 

"So it will only be a single loud scolding to drive them 
out." (37:19) 

"And (let him) not associate anyone with his Fosterer in 
His service (worship)." (18:110) 

"Owe of them said, C I see myself pressing wine (in my 
dreams)." (12:36) 

"And (remember), when Allah promised you (to grant 
victory at Badr over) one of the two parties, (assuring) 
that it will bo yours." (8:7) 

"Owe of the two (women) said, 'O my father! Employ 
him (on wages)/" (28:26) 



448 67: Numbers audits Usage 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



2. The number 2 is used as: 



Masculine 



0^1 



Feminine 



O&Ji 



.*^i\ 

ctt-^1 



Nominative case 



Accusative and 
Genitive case. 



"(Let there be witnesses between you) at the time of 
making bequest, two just men from among you." (5:106) 



^ fj^- yl^=>JlZ Js J?3\ JtJ\ 



#$<)$ Uj^ 



*T' 



"And two of camels and two of cows, say, 'Has He made 
unlawful the two males or the two females or that which 
the wombs of the two females contain?"' (6: 144) 

"Allah directs you concerning your children: For the 
male a portion equivalent of two females ." (4:1 1) 

Note: The number two i.e. g&\ is seldom used with a noun as 
the dual ending of the noun gives its meaning. 

Example: 

o\£S two houses. If we write g^i 0&S, some emphasis is 
implied. 



449 



67; Numbers and its Usage 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



3 . For numbers 3-10 



Number 


Masculine 


Feminine 


notes 


3 


i»Vs 




Also written as d>S^ or ^S^ 


4 








5 


^ 






6 


5 






7 








8 


o^ 


aIjIIj 


Also written as ^JU5 
and (j-15 


9 


£ « 






10 


^ 


3 r^^£^ 





The feminine is made by adding " S " (Xfe^lH *As)l ) to the 
masculine. From 3 to 10 the phrases are in a possessive (<iU?)ll) 
construction. The number (iliil) will be the possessor, 
(u>UalSl) and can be declined. The counted noun (^jiilH) is the 
possessed (<CJ} ciUaill) and will always be genitive, plural and 
indefinite. 



450 



67: Numbers audits Usage 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



If the counted noun (SJjJlUI) (always plural) is masculine, the 
number (:> JoLll) will be feminine and vice versa. 

"Your sign is that you will no speak to mankind for 
three nights (though) in sound health." (19:10) 

"Then the testimony of one of them (maybe accepted if) 
he bears witness (by swearing) four times by Allah that 
he is certainly of those who are truthful." (24:6) 

"But whoever does not find (the means to do any of the 
above three) then he should fast for three days." (5:89) 

"But one who cannot find (anything for offering) should 
then fast for three days during the Hajj and seven days 
when you return, these (make) ten (days) complete." 
(2:196) 

"And He destined in it its food in four periods." (41 : 10) 
451 67; Numbers and its Usage 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"(Some) will say, '(They were) three, their dog being the 
fourth of them,' while (others) will say, '(They were) 
fiver" (18:22) 

"Your Fosterer is certainly Allah Who created the skies 
and the earth in six periods." (7:54) 

"I see seven fat cows which seven lean ones were 
consuming." (12:43) 



^ 



"There are seven gates for it." (15:44) 



"£zg/tf pairs, two of sheep and two of goats." (6:143) 

"Which He imposed on them for seven nights and eight 
days continuously." (69:7) 

4^-^ >.. ' > fit' *1\' v 
C^jo c«L>W £-«£ <>*>* U*U Jjdj ^ 

"And We did give to Musa nine signs (as) clear proofs." 
(17:101) 

452 67; Numbers and its Usage 



====— — Learning Arabic; Language of the QUR'AN 
"And there were nine persons in the city." (27:48) 

"Whoever comes with (one) good then (the reward) for 
him is ten (times) like it." (6: 1 60) 

"Then for its expiation (so as to wipe off the ill effect of 
breaking such deliberate oaths you should) feed ten poor 
persons with the normal food with which you feed your 
own people." (5:89) 



Note: 



The masculine form <jUi "eight" belongs to the defective nouns 
(<jti ,j<aSli). When followed by a noun the missing "^ " is 
restored and will thus assume the following forms: 

^ JZX jZK ^*j £}\ ot^J I ^ gj$ ;&£j h 



"Eight pairs, two of sheep and two of goats." (6:143) 

4 ^6t %3; ju ^ ^ &*z ^ 

"Which He imposed on them for seven nights and eight 
days continuously." (69:7) 



4. From 1 1 to 1 9 



All the numbers are indeclinable except 12. They are followed by a 
singular noun in the accusative case as it is a specification (>Ui). 

453 67; \umbers and its Usage 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Number 


Masculine 


Feminine 


Notes 


11 




S^ix- tS^i 




12 


r*5*£* ^OJ. 


o rCi£- Ujo} 


Nominative case 






Accusative and 
Genitive case 


13 


Jrii XSSC* 


SyJLt- ^ jk3 




14 


^ ^ i 






15 


^ ^ ^ ^ ^ a< 


j*Za£* wM^O* 




16 


i-i-t^t' ^w^t*j 


o ■y-JLC- Owj 




17 


i-l-U-C' ^■^'■H,' 


o j*Zu£* Xjom 




18 


rJL£- ^CoLo- 


SyJLC- (3^*"^ 




19 


yJZS*- Ajt^lo 


6 i^utt- ^u^J 





^ 



!',<;b 



:L?*J 



"O my father ! I saw eleven planets." (12:4) 



454 67: Numbers and its Usage 



===^^= Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 

"The number of months with Allah is certainly twelve 
months (in a year)." (9:36) 

A u *' ''l' C-ll > ' ~ ' ^ -f'Y 

"So /Wve springs gushed out from it." (2:60) 






* U IaJ 



^Jl 



"And We had raised among them twelve chieftains " (5:12) 

"And We divided them into twelve tribal communities." 
(7:160) 

5. Numbers 20 to 90 

The multiples of 10, from 20 to 90 arc common to both 
masculine and feminine. 

All numbers from 20 to 99 are followed by the noun of 
specification (j^Ii) in the accusative singular. This is similar as 
in the case of numbers from 1 1 to 19. 



Number 


Nominative 


Accusative & Genitive 


20 






30 


CiyX 


Ofc0^ 


40 


-7 o^of 




50 




L.Xi - '** - ^*" 



455 



67; \ umbers and its Usage 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



60 




0^-f 


70 


1 o >o ^ 




80 


T °U ' t 


(JoLLj 


90 







"If there are twenty patient ones of you..." (8:65) 

"And the bearing of him and the weaning of him takes 
thirty months." (46:15) 

"And We appointed for Musa thirty nights." (7:142) 

/ it**: " "~\ ' > ft r. <- v 

"And when We appointed for Musa/or/y nights." (2:5 1 ) 

"Until when he reaches his strength (maturity) and 
reaches/or/v years." (46: 1 5) 



4 ulc^ <^Sj^Jj-V]4^Jl c3ii\ ^4^^^^ 



"So he stayed among them for a thousand years less fifty 
years." (29: 14) 



456 67: Numbers and its Usage 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"But he who is not capable (to fast) should feed sixty 
needy ones." (58:4) 

# «_£OL*ld Wjj Oj*^ W-^ 3 jp-T*? <4 -** f- 3 

"Then make him to enter into a chain, the length of 
which is seventy cubits/' (69:32) 

"And Musa chose sevewfy men from his people for Our 
appointed time/place." (7:1 55) 

"Flog them (with) eighty stripes." (24:4) 

6. Numbers 21 to 99 

These numbers are formed by placing a J between the units and 

tens. 



Number 


Masculine 


Feminine 


21 


OjlMr J -^J 




22 







457 



67; Numbers and its Usage 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



< »s ' »' 



"He has ninety nine ewes and I have (only) one ewe." 

(38:23) 

7. Numbers 100 and above. 



Number 




100 




200 


(juj> / (J&5-A 


300 


aLa J^^i 


400 




500 


ZLa jj^ 


600 




700 




800 


AJLa (^U-j 


900 





458 67; Numbers and its Usage 







rniliy AAldUlL, i_cm lyuayc vji u .^ v*.«. ..... 




Number 


■'■' '■' ■•■■■ 




1,000 


J& 




2,000 


glijf/C^t 




3,000 


^Nl &$ 




4,000 


(j^I fcujt 




5,000 


oNT ii>- 




100,000 


i_iil 51? 






^ ^-J C^i ^ly 



"If there are twenty patient ones of you, they shall 
overcome two hundred" (8:65) 



^ \$\ f?& <&£ (^=^5 ^ 0^ j 



"And if there are a hundred of you, they shall overcome 
a thousand." (8:65) 



A <j\Jitf '^j^*i ^ (£^ c^-5 o^j j 



"And if there are a thousand of you, they shall overcome 
/^va thousand" (8:66) 



459 



67: Numbers and its Usage 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



^#. >^< i < ^ 



"Is it not enough for you that your Fosterer should 
support you with three thousand of the angels?" 
(3:124) 

"Your Fosterer will support you with/zve thousand of 
the angels." (3:125) 

"And We sent him to more than a hundred thousand 
(people)." (37: 147) 

4 klo <^\— **- ^li^^cjJlI^iiiA-li^ 



Vfv- > 



"So he stayed among them for a thousand years less fifty 
years." (29:14) 

THE ORDINAL NUMBERS ^pj| iuklt 

The ordinal numbers are generally formed on the measure of the 
active participle Jc-ii. They are derived from the cardinals 
except: 

<JjM\ -> Jj*^^ which is a special form. 



460 67: Numbers and its Usage 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Number 


Masculine 


Feminine 


First 


Jj'Sa 




Second 


o$\ 


felSJl 


Third 


iJlSJl 


asjvsjT 


Fourth 




> 0^ 


Fifth 


j^\l'\ 




Sixth 


^^oULJl 




Seventh 


gUi 




Eighth 


&£\ 


i^lSJl 


Ninth 


^Isft 


^i^lSJl 


Tenth 


>UJ! 


iy$X$\ 



Note: The ending harakah of the above change is according to 
their declension. 



>. SK' 



"He is the First and the Last:' (57:3) 



^T^4 Hi Si^t <^6fc 



"(He being the) second of the two when they were both 
in the cave." (9:40) 



461 



67 ; Numbers and its Usage 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"Therefore We strengthened (them) with a third" (36:14) 

"(Some) will say, '(They were) three, their dog being the 
fourth of them/" (18:22) 

"And the fifth (time) that Allah's curse be on him if he is 
of those who lie." (24:7) 

"Their dog being the sixth of them." (18:22) 



»»r 



"Their dog being the eighth of them." (18:22) 
THE FRACTIONS -*jJsi\ 

The fractions (except Vi) are on the pattern of Jii. 



One half 


9 


One sixth 


$ > > 

(j-*-^ 


One third 


Ji! 


One seventh 




Two thirds 


(jl£b /oj£iS 


One eighth 




One fourth 


? 9 9 


One ninth 


? ,' 

*-*^i 


One fifth 




One tenth 





462 



67; Numbers and its Usage 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"And for you half of what your wives leave behind." (4: 1 2) 

"And for the (wives) owe fourth of what you leave 
behind." (4:12) 

"Then theirs is Aw thirds of what is left (to be 
inherited)." (4:11) 

"For each of them the sixth of what is left behind." (4: 1 1 ) 

"Then for the mother a third? (4: 1 1) 

"But if ye leave a child, they get an eighth? (4:12) 



9 9 1* J * 



THE DISTRIBUTIVE ADJECTIVES -^^^I^LiLaJI 



Two, Two 


ti^ ( u^i , J^i ) 


Three, Three 


d)Sli ( i&$ , isSls ) 


Four, Four 


^Uj (&£( , l^jl ) 



463 



67; Numbers and its Usage 



^===— Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 

"Then marry from among the women who seem good to 
you, two and three and four." (4:3) 



One time 


& 


Two times 


O^jr* * uyj-* 


Three times 


oljjJa dj*>li 


Every time 


i^L? 


First time 




Second time 


<£j*-\ oJ-° / (£j>-\ »jl5 



h*^ y^*~\^ 



''As We had created you the first time" (18:48) 






"Do they not see that they are afflicted once or twice 
every year? 1 ' (9:126) 



4 o> ^ jo, jjai i^t^ ^ j 



"And those among you who have not reached the age of 
puberty seek your permission three times" (24:58) 



464 67; Numbers and its Usage 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



£ * ^ • *>s. -> , 






"And from it We will bring you out a second time" 
(20:55) 



Two, Both (used to emphasize the 
dual form) 


% 




\5& 


All (used to emphasize the plural 
form) 


'$ 


9* * 



^ ol Lii j* W L*:5& Jt La jU -/^=»1» -4^e o^L>Lf 

"If one of them or both of them reach old age in your 
presence, then do not say (even), ' Vff" to them.'" (17:23) 

"Each of the two gardens gave its food produce." (18:33) 

"So the angels bowed down all of them together." (15:30) 

"And He taught Adam all names/' (2:3 1) 

"And a// o/ ///em, without exception, will be presented 
before Us." (36:32) 



465 



67; Numbers audits Usage 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"Wherever you are Allah will bring you all together, 
Allah certainly has power over everything." (2:148) 

"And hold together (and be united) through the rope of 
Allah and do not be divided." (3:103) 

The following table of XT shows its usage. 



Meaning 


Plural 


Singular 


Gender 


Other/next 




& 


Masculine 


Other/next 


9- 

>1 


^^ 


Feminine 


Last 


- ° • ~ / \ ° •* * T 


>* 


Masculine 


Last 




iSj^l °>?"' 


Feminine 



A *1a^ZA\ ^^[/^ ^^3j» S^^X^^Ij^^ ^j^ 

"And the orter said, 'I saw myself carrying bread on my 
head from which birds ate.'" (12:36) 



466 



67; Numbers and its Usage 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"And another (reward) which you love." (61:13) 

"Or two others from other than you." (5:106) 

"And (there are) others who are made to wait for the 
command of Allah." (9:106) 

"You will find others." (4:9 1 ) 



"Listeners on behalf of other people." (5:41) 

"We believe in Allah and in the period hereafter"" (2:8) 

"Whereas the home of the hereafter is better for those 
who guard (against evil)." (6:32) 

"And assign for me a true mention among later 
(generations)." (26:84) 

467 67; Numbers and its Usage 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"Say, "Certainly, the ancients and the later...'" (56:49) 

"Then (he should fast for the missed) number of days 
later r (2:184) 



f*- 


When these are followed by ^*, the 
meaning will be "many, many". 


0* 



1 "-**' ~'\S ~" >'*^\* 

"How many clear signs did We give them." (2:21 1) 

"^/?^/ /zow /wflwv of the prophets fought (in the way of 
Allah)." (3:146) 



4 *f£ ^ <^ ^ ^ o* 02§ ^ 



"^4/7(i /?ow many a town revolted against the commandment 
of its Fosterer (65:8) 



Few / Some iJaj / aJLI 



^aj 



4j(^2j 



This is used for an indefinite number between three and ten. It is 
in the possessive form, ^iUki. 

"Within some years." (30:4) 

468 67; Numbers and its Usage 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 68 




THE SUBSTITUTE 

It is the noun used to substitute the fore-mentioned noun in the 
succeeding sentences. 

1 . The substitute must follow the word for which it is substituted. 
The substitute is called JU1 and the substituted is called 

Example: 

"So believe in Allah and His Messenger the unlettered 
prophet." (7:158) 

2. The harakah of j jjl will follow the harakah of the 0+ j Z$ \ . 



469 



68; Substitute 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"They replied, 'We will serve your God, and the God of 
your fathers: Ibrahim and Ismael and Ishaq, One God, and 
we are those who submit to Him (as Muslims).'" (2:1 33) 

"Guide us to the straight path." (1:6) 

"The path of those, on whom You have bestowed 
favors." (1:7) 



'They said, 'We believe in the Fosterer of the worlds, 
Fosterer of Musa and Harun.'" (7:121,122) 

The substitute (JjuJI) can be without the article ' JW Therefore, 
if the substituted (iL. jllitf) is definite then the substitute 
(JjJO can be indefinite and vice versa. 

"Those are the signs of the book and a Qur'an that 
makes things clear." (15:1) 



470 68; Substitute 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 69 




VARIOUS UNORTHODOX VERBS 



The verb (not to be) - j^Ij 

It is used only in the perfect tense and gives the meaning of the 
imperfect. Like $> the predicate (noun or adjective) of J^\ will 
be i^alUI (_^). 

Past tense conjugation of J^\ 





Singular 


Dual 


Plural 


3rd person masculine 




uJLi 


laulaJ 


3rd person feminine 


' °\ 


l ^.y^jj 


L>^ 



471 69; Various Unorthodox Verbs 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



2nd person masculine 


C-wJ 


u^ 




2nd person feminine 


cu-IJ 


^ 


^L*^J 


First person 
(Masculine/Feminine) 


cxU 


- 


ml 



Examples: 



"And those who do not believe say, 'You are not a 
messenger.'" (13:43) 

4 ty; cJ3 ;&!rf p^i-gfi $$}£-$$ 

"And do not say to one who offers you peace, (or 
salutation), 'You are not a believer.'" (4:94) 



< T A _ ^ 



"You will certainly /70/ have any authority on My 
servants." (15:42) 

"O wives of the prophet! You are not like any other of 
the women." (33:32) 



472 69: Various Unorthodox Verbs 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



Note: If a sentence without a verb and negated by J^ is 
introduced by the preposition ^ 9 then the predicate will be in the 
genitive case. 

"Is not Allah the Best Judge, of all the judges?" (95:8) 

"Is He not able to give life to the dead?" (75:40) 

"A to/ Allah sufficient for His servant?" (39:36) 

as 

The Verbs of Praise and Blame jodt j £ju*)l ^Jtiai 

The verb liu is used for praise and ^~L is used for blame. 
These verbs like jJJ only occur in the past tense and have the 
meaning in the imperfect tense. They exist only in the third 
person form. The feminine of jju is cLJu and the feminine of 

-*aJO IS c-w-uo. 

Exa/wp/es 1 : 

/ $H >t~>*s\*s*. '"£> ^ > \ y \ f 9 "-' v 
^ o\jl y*o[ JujOi pje oi*^ ^J^-H l ^*?J» f 

"And We granted to Dawood, Sulaiman an excellent 
servant, he was certainly of those who turned (to Allah)." 
(38:30) 

473 69; Various Unorthodox Verbs 



— Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 

"That Allah is certainly your Guardian, Excellent is He (as) 
the Guardian and Excellent is He (as) the Helper." (8:40) 

"And excellent is the reward for those who work" 
(3:136) 

# UjOj^ c->*-L*j O^^i ^Ju^ 

"£V/7 the drink and ill the resting place." (18:29) 

/ > ±'u 'z'\' I"*' ^:1\ 
^ ,A-LJ1 JJU, ^J\ cA^ f 

"Evil is the guardian and evil is the friend." (22:13) 

"Hell, they will enter it and it is an evil place (and time 
for) staying." (14:29) 

The Verbs of Wonder „/ r -S <j£i? 



he verbs used to express wonder about something good or bad 

e on two patterns iiill U> and aj J*ll. 

Komples: 

"Perished be man, how ungrateful he is\" (80:17) 

474 69: Various Unorthodox Verbs 



^ j\-tife ^JJ^XZ* 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"Then, what patience they (must) have over the fire!' 

(2:175) 






"How clear His sight and how clear His hearing"' 
(18:26) 

"How clearly will they hear and how clearly will they 
seer{\9'M) 

This above pattern is the most beautiful form found in the Holy 
Qur'an. 

The Verb - JJ* 

The verb iS ^ has the meaning "It may be", "perhaps", "very 
likely to be" or "it is well hoped to". It is a supporting verb 
which is used in the perfect tense. It is followed by a sentence in 
the subjunctive introduced by 5i the subject of which is also the 
subject of (^1^. 

"It may be that (the other people) are better than them." 
(49:11) 

475 69: Various Unorthodox Verbs 



=^=«^«= Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 

"And it is possible that you dislike a thing while it is 
good for you." (2:216) 

"And it is possible that you love a thing while it is bad 
for you." (2:216) 

"May 6e> that your Fosterer will raise you to a praised 
position." (17:79) 

"Perhaps your Fosterer will have mercy on you." (17:8) 

"He said, 'Zf may be that your Fosterer will destroy your 
enemy...'" (7:129) 



476 69; Various Unorthodox Verbs 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 




Chapter 70 




FIVE MAGNIFIED NOUNS 

^J-tSUJ| ^LUJL^>J( ^UuUiVt 

Some nouns are such that their three states (nominative PyJ-JI 
accusative 4^aUl, genitive jj^kjl) are denoted by letters. 

♦ The nominative (^yjl]l) is denoted by "j ". 

♦ The accusative (4^Il^) is denoted by " 1 ". 

♦ The genitive GjL/*^ 1 ) is denoted by "^ ". 
The following five nouns show these states. 



Genitive 


Accusative 


Nominative 


Sj$Ss*Jl frilly il 


°4 


tf 


$ 


9 \ 

Father 


& 


\±\ 


& 


Brother 



477 



70; Five Magnified Nouns 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



cT 


te 




Father in law 


u 


IS 




Mouth 


& 


IS 




Endowed with/ 
owner of 



The form L>- is not used in the Holy Qur'an. 

In addition to the above general forms _)i has additional forms 
for duals and plurals in masculine and feminine. They are seen 
in the following table. 



Genitive 



Accusative 



Nominative 



._,:.♦■ 

'ft. \ ~ '. it TiAi ■'} 



5jO\-*jr 



Xa 



Masculine 



<S* 



\i 



Singular 



<Sj> 



<S}> 



$5*1 JZ9* 



Dual 



& 



& 



W 



\}j\ 



Plural 



478 



70: Five Magnified Nouns 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



The following table shows the usage of < 



Genitive 


Accusative 


Nominative 




Feminine 


oli 


olS 


OlS 


iiS 


Singular 


LJIjS 


d!)* 


\j1jS 


/ opiji 


Dual 


oSfjl 


oSjl 


oSjl 




Plural 



The general meaning of jS can be described as owner of/ 
endowed with. But in some cases they may give a different 
meaning. 

"And We turned them to their right and their left." (18:18) 

"And if (the debtor) is in difficulty..." (2:280) 
Examples of Magnified Nouns - S^Slih illl^l; 



479 



70: Five Magnified Nouns 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"And our father is a very old man." (28:23) 

"And (only) his parents inherit him." (4:1 1) 

"And he raised his parents on the couch." (12:100) 

"And they came to their father at night fall, weeping.' 
(12:16) 

m v°j s^- 1 <Jr ,J ^ ^ 



"May the hands of Abu Lahab perish. And may he 
perish." (111:1) 



^^Q^jj) 



"And mention (to them about) the brother of Aad (Hud)." 
(46:21) 

"To show him how to hide his brother's dead body." 
(5:31) 

"When /Ae/V brother Nuh said to them, 'Will you not 
guard (against evil)?'" (26:106) 

480 70; Five Magnified Nouns 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



**gL 'J* Cj \i_ ^£J £!f \£& 



"Like one who stretches his hands towards water that it 
may reach his mouth but it does not reach it." (13:14) 

"My father invites you." (28:25) 

"And protectively forgive my Jather, he is certainly 
among those who are astray." (26:86) 

"And put it on the face of my father, (his power of) 
seeing will come (back to him)." ( 12:93) 

"This brother of mine" (38:23) 

"I do not have control except on myself and my brother" 
(5:25) 

"For Allah is Lord of grace abounding "(2:105) 

481 70: Five Magnified Nouns 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"Decided by wo just persons from among you."(5:95) 
"Containing all kinds (of trees and delights)." (55:48) 
"Two gardens producing bitter fruit."(34:16) 

"When death approaches one of you, let there be 
witnesses between you at the time of making bequest, 
two just men from among you." (5:106) 

"Though there be a relative (involved in the benefit)." 
(5:106) 

"And be good to parents and relatives ."(2:83) 

"And We carried him on (the ship) made of planks and 
nails (or planks tied with palm fiber). (54:13) 

482 70; Five Magnified Nouns 



Learning Arabic Language of the QUR'AN 



"And the possessors of relationship are closer, one to 
another." (33:6) 

"And do not let those of you who possess grace and 
(financial) capability (to help), swear not to give to 
relatives:' (24:22) 

"And if they are pregnant" (65:6) 

4 <>*-&* 0*^*1 o> (S^y <JiPin e4iL? ^ 

"And for the pregnant women, their prescribed term is 
till they lay down their burden." (65:4) 

"And call to witness two just men from among you." (65:2) 

"And there will remain the Face (Person) of your 
Fosterer, Possessor o/glory and honor. (55:27) 



I $i% $%*£ &jft $$ } 



"Blessed is the name of your Fosterer, Possessor of 
glory and honor," (55:78) 



483 70; Five Magnified Nouns 






V 






ftj^\ tfjtih &> l^j^\ iiUt fJuu 



(kjt&y &&*) 



The message of the Qur'an is addressed to all creation, conveyed in the Arabic 
language. Allah Almighty says: "We have sent it down as an Arabic Qur'an so 
that you may understand." (12:2) Acquiring command over the Arabic language 
can be relatively easy for those who are native speakers, but can prove difficult 
for the non-speakers. The study of Arabic, therefore, cannot be taken lightly. 

The books that can impart knowledge of the Qur'anic Arabic are rare. The 
present book is specifically designed for learning the language of the Qur'an. All 
examples used in the explanation of Arabic grammar have been taken straight 
from the Holy Qur'an. This approach aids the beginning student to enter the 
world of the Qur'an, allowing simultaneous understanding of Arabic grammar 
and the Qur'an, which is a very special feature of this book. 

Other components that make this book attractive and useful are the simplicity of 
the language used, and its clarity and effectiveness of expression in achieving its 
objective. This book can be used by students of different ages whose intention is 
to learn Arabic with an eye toward proper understanding of the Qur'an. 

The author has profound knowledge of both the Arabic and English languages. 
She also possesses a deep insight into Qur'anic expressions. She studied Arabic 
in Saudi Arabia and in India. This comprehensive book is the result of her 
diligence and commitment to learning and teaching the Qur'anic Arabic. 

May Allah reward her for this valuable service to the understanding of the 
Qur'an and make it popular among the students and the academic world at large. 

Prof. Mohsin Usmani Nadwi, Professor of Arabic and Dean at English and 
Foreign languages University (formerly CIEFL) Hyderabad, India. 



pM$h 



DARUSSALAM 

GLOBAL LEADER IN ISLAMIC BOOKS